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Thread: An Introduction to Linux System Administration

  1. #1

    Pdf 32 An Introduction to Linux System Administration

    An Introduction to Linux System Administration
    FORWARD.......................................................................................................................................2
    DAVID JONES ..................................................................................................................................2
    BRUCE JAMIESON............................................................................................................................2
    TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................................................3
    CHAPTER 1 THE WHAT, WHY AND HOW OF SYS ADMIN................................................16
    INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................16
    WHAT SYSTEMS ADMINISTRATORS DO...........................................................................................16
    USERS ..........................................................................................................................................17
    HARDWARE/SOFTWARE.................................................................................................................18
    SUPPORT.......................................................................................................................................18
    WHAT SYSTEMS ADMINISTRATORS NEED TO KNOW ........................................................................19
    WHY UNIX? ................................................................................................................................20
    UNIX PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE................................................................................................20
    LINUX ..........................................................................................................................................21
    SOME MORE SYS ADMIN THEORY...................................................................................................21
    DAILY OPERATIONS.......................................................................................................................21
    AUTOMATE, AUTOMATE AND AUTOMATE .......................................................................................22
    SYSTEM MONITORING....................................................................................................................22
    HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE ..........................................................................................................23
    EVALUATION ................................................................................................................................24
    PURCHASE ....................................................................................................................................24
    INSTALLATION..............................................................................................................................24
    HARDWARE ..................................................................................................................................24
    ADMINISTRATION AND PLANNING ..................................................................................................25
    DOCUMENTATION .........................................................................................................................26
    POLICY.........................................................................................................................................28
    PENALTIES....................................................................................................................................28
    TYPES OF POLICY..........................................................................................................................29
    CREATING POLICY.........................................................................................................................29
    CODE OF ETHICS............................................................................................................................29
    SAGE-AU CODE OF ETHICS...........................................................................................................29
    SAGE-AU CODE OF ETHICS...........................................................................................................30
    PEOPLE SKILLS..............................................................................................................................31
    COMMUNICATING WITH USERS ......................................................................................................31
    HOW NOT TO COMMUNICATE WITH USERS.......................................................................................34
    CONCLUSIONS...............................................................................................................................35
    CHAPTER 2 INFORMATION SOURCES..................................................................................36
    INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................36
    PROFESSIONAL ORGANISATIONS.....................................................................................................36
    OTHER ORGANISATIONS ................................................................................................................37
    THE SAGE GROUPS ......................................................................................................................37
    THE ACS......................................................................................................................................37
    UNIX USER GROUPS .....................................................................................................................37
    USEFUL BOOKS AND MAGAZINES ....................................................................................................38
    BIBLIOGRAPHIES ...........................................................................................................................38
    MAGAZINES..................................................................................................................................39
    INTERNET RESOURCES ...................................................................................................................39
    HOW TO USE THE INTERNET...........................................................................................................39
    SOFTWARE ON THE INTERNET ........................................................................................................39
    DISCUSSION FORUMS.....................................................................................................................40
    USENET NEWS...............................................................................................................................40
    85321, Systems Administration Table of Contents
    David Jones and Bruce Jamieson (15/10/98) Page 4
    USEFUL NEWSGROUPS....................................................................................................................40
    MAILING LISTS..............................................................................................................................41
    OTHER DISCUSSION FORUMS .........................................................................................................41
    INFORMATION...............................................................................................................................41
    WORLD-WIDE WEB ......................................................................................................................41
    ANONYMOUS FTP.........................................................................................................................42
    INTERNET BASED LINUX RESOURCES ..............................................................................................42
    THE LINUX DOCUMENTATION PROJECT..........................................................................................42
    REDHAT .......................................................................................................................................42
    CONCLUSIONS...............................................................................................................................43
    REVIEW QUESTIONS ......................................................................................................................43
    CHAPTER 3 USING UNIX............................................................................................................44
    INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................44
    INTRODUCTORY UNIX..................................................................................................................44
    UNIX COMMANDS ARE PROGRAMS................................................................................................45
    VI ................................................................................................................................................45
    AN INTRODUCTION TO VI ..............................................................................................................45
    UNIX COMMANDS ........................................................................................................................46
    PHILOSOPHY OF UNIX COMMANDS................................................................................................46
    UNIX COMMAND FORMAT.............................................................................................................46
    A COMMAND FOR EVERYTHING......................................................................................................47
    ONLINE HELP ................................................................................................................................48
    USING THE MANUAL PAGES ............................................................................................................48
    IS THERE A MAN PAGE FOR... ..........................................................................................................48
    MAN PAGE FORMAT........................................................................................................................49
    SOME UNIX COMMANDS...............................................................................................................49
    IDENTIFICATION COMMANDS.........................................................................................................50
    SIMPLE COMMANDS.......................................................................................................................51
    FILTERS........................................................................................................................................51
    UNIQ.............................................................................................................................................53
    TR ................................................................................................................................................53
    CUT...............................................................................................................................................54
    PASTE ...........................................................................................................................................54
    GREP.............................................................................................................................................55
    WC ................................................................................................................................................55
    GETTING MORE OUT OF FILTERS .....................................................................................................56
    CONCLUSIONS...............................................................................................................................56
    CHAPTER 4 THE FILE HIERARCHY.......................................................................................57
    INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................57
    WHY?...........................................................................................................................................57
    THE IMPORTANT SECTIONS ............................................................................................................58
    THE ROOT OF THE PROBLEM...........................................................................................................58
    HOMES FOR USERS.........................................................................................................................59
    EVERY USER NEEDS A HOME...........................................................................................................59
    OTHER HOMES?.............................................................................................................................60
    /USR AND /VAR.............................................................................................................................60
    AND THE DIFFERENCE IS... .............................................................................................................60
    /USR/LOCAL .................................................................................................................................61
    LIB, INCLUDE AND SRC...................................................................................................................62
    /VAR/SPOOL .................................................................................................................................62
    X WINDOWS.................................................................................................................................63
    BINS.............................................................................................................................................63
    WHICH BIN?..................................................................................................................................63
    /BIN ............................................................................................................................................64
    /SBIN...........................................................................................................................................64
    85321, Systems Administration Table of Contents
    David Jones and Bruce Jamieson (15/10/98) Page 5
    /USR/BIN.....................................................................................................................................65
    /USR/LOCAL/BIN .........................................................................................................................65
    CONFIGURATION FILES, LOGS AND OTHER BITS! ..............................................................................65
    ETC ETC ETC. ................................................................................................................................65
    LOGS............................................................................................................................................66
    /PROC...........................................................................................................................................66
    /DEV ............................................................................................................................................66
    CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................................66
    FUTURE STANDARDS .....................................................................................................................66
    REVIEW QUESTIONS ......................................................................................................................67
    4.1 ...............................................................................................................................................67
    4.2 ...............................................................................................................................................67
    4.3 ...............................................................................................................................................67
    CHAPTER 5 PROCESSES AND FILES.......................................................................................68
    INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................68
    MULTIPLE USERS...........................................................................................................................68
    IDENTIFYING USERS.......................................................................................................................68
    USERS AND GROUPS.......................................................................................................................69
    NAMES AND NUMBERS...................................................................................................................69
    ID ................................................................................................................................................69
    COMMANDS AND PROCESSES..........................................................................................................70
    WHERE ARE THE COMMANDS?........................................................................................................70
    WHICH ...........................................................................................................................................70
    WHEN IS A COMMAND NOT A COMMAND? .......................................................................................70
    CONTROLLING PROCESSES .............................................................................................................71
    PROCESS ATTRIBUTES....................................................................................................................71
    PARENT PROCESSES.......................................................................................................................71
    PROCESS UID AND GID ................................................................................................................72
    REAL UID AND GID......................................................................................................................72
    EFFECTIVE UID AND GID..............................................................................................................72
    FILES............................................................................................................................................73
    FILE TYPES ...................................................................................................................................73
    TYPES OF NORMAL FILES................................................................................................................73
    FILE ATTRIBUTES ..........................................................................................................................74
    VIEWING FILE ATTRIBUTES ............................................................................................................74
    FILE PROTECTION..........................................................................................................................76
    FILE OPERATIONS ..........................................................................................................................76
    USERS, GROUPS AND OTHERS .........................................................................................................77
    THREE SETS OF FILE PERMISSIONS...................................................................................................77
    SPECIAL PERMISSIONS....................................................................................................................78
    CHANGING PASSWORDS.................................................................................................................79
    NUMERIC PERMISSIONS..................................................................................................................80
    SYMBOLIC TO NUMERIC.................................................................................................................81
    EXERCISES....................................................................................................................................81
    CHANGING FILE PERMISSIONS ........................................................................................................82
    CHANGING PERMISSIONS ...............................................................................................................82
    CHANGING OWNERS ......................................................................................................................83
    CHANGING GROUPS .......................................................................................................................83
    THE COMMANDS ...........................................................................................................................84
    DEFAULT PERMISSIONS..................................................................................................................85
    FILE PERMISSIONS AND DIRECTORIES..............................................................................................86
    FOR EXAMPLE ...............................................................................................................................86
    WHAT HAPPENS IF? .......................................................................................................................88
    LINKS...........................................................................................................................................88
    SEARCHING THE FILE HIERARCHY...................................................................................................89
    THE FIND COMMAND .....................................................................................................................89
    85321, Systems Administration Table of Contents
    David Jones and Bruce Jamieson (15/10/98) Page 6
    EXERCISES....................................................................................................................................93
    PERFORMING COMMANDS ON MANY FILES.......................................................................................94
    FIND AND -EXEC ...........................................................................................................................94
    FIND AND BACK QUOTES ................................................................................................................95
    FIND AND XARGS............................................................................................................................95
    CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................................96
    REVIEW QUESTIONS ......................................................................................................................97
    CHAPTER 6 THE SHELL ...........................................................................................................99
    INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................99
    EXECUTING COMMANDS................................................................................................................99
    DIFFERENT SHELLS......................................................................................................................100
    STARTING A SHELL......................................................................................................................100
    PARSING THE COMMAND LINE ......................................................................................................101
    THE COMMAND LINE...................................................................................................................102
    ARGUMENTS...............................................................................................................................102
    ONE COMMAND TO A LINE............................................................................................................103
    COMMANDS IN THE BACKGROUND................................................................................................104
    FILENAME SUBSTITUTION ............................................................................................................104
    EXERCISES..................................................................................................................................106
    REMOVING SPECIAL MEANING ......................................................................................................106
    INPUT/OUTPUT REDIRECTION .......................................................................................................108
    HOW IT WORKS ...........................................................................................................................108
    FILE DESCRIPTORS.......................................................................................................................109
    STANDARD FILE DESCRIPTORS......................................................................................................109
    CHANGING DIRECTION.................................................................................................................109
    USING STANDARD I/O..................................................................................................................110
    FILTERS......................................................................................................................................110
    I/O REDIRECTION EXAMPLES........................................................................................................111
    REDIRECTING STANDARD ERROR..................................................................................................111
    EVALUATING FROM LEFT TO RIGHT ..............................................................................................112
    EVERYTHING IS A FILE.................................................................................................................113
    TTY.............................................................................................................................................113
    DEVICE FILES..............................................................................................................................114
    REDIRECTING I/O TO DEVICE FILES ..............................................................................................114
    SHELL VARIABLES .......................................................................................................................115
    ENVIRONMENT CONTROL.............................................................................................................115
    THE SET COMMAND.....................................................................................................................116
    USING SHELL VARIABLES .............................................................................................................116
    ASSIGNING A VALUE....................................................................................................................116
    ACCESSING A VARIABLE'S VALUE .................................................................................................116
    UNINITIALISED VARIABLES ..........................................................................................................117
    RESETTING A VARIABLE...............................................................................................................117
    THE READONLY COMMAND............................................................................................................117
    THE UNSET COMMAND .................................................................................................................117
    ARITHMETIC...............................................................................................................................118
    THE EXPR COMMAND ...................................................................................................................118
    VALID VARIABLE NAMES..............................................................................................................119
    {} ..............................................................................................................................................119
    ENVIRONMENT CONTROL.............................................................................................................119
    PS1 AND PS2.............................................................................................................................120
    BASH EXTENSIONS........................................................................................................................120
    VARIABLES AND SUB-SHELLS .......................................................................................................120
    FOR EXAMPLE .............................................................................................................................121
    EXPORT .......................................................................................................................................121
    LOCAL VARIABLES ......................................................................................................................121
    ADVANCED VARIABLE SUBSTITUTION...........................................................................................122



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    Last edited by sweta singh; 4th March 2011 at 07:01 PM.

  2. #2
    oe sweety kya mast uplod ki hai.......maza aa gya.
    he he he

  3. #3
    Hey thanks alot.... This was very useful

  4. #4
    Quote Originally Posted by sweta singh View Post
    :Laie_58:
    [MENTION=1486]sweta singh[/MENTION]- Thread Moved to the RECYCLE BIN.

    POSTING COPYRIGHTED EBOOKS IS NOT ALLOWED. This is your first and last warning. You will be banned for life if you break this rule again.

    Please take care while posting such stuff.

    Best Regards
    Sakshi

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