New generations and hybrid vehicles full notes ebook free download pdf
An electric vehicle (EV), also referred to as an electric drive vehicle , uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propuls ion. Electric vehicles include electric cars, electric trains , electric lorries, electric aeroplanes , electric boats, electric motorcycles and scooters and electric spacecraft. Electric vehicles firs t came into existence in the mid -19th century, when electricity was among the preferred methods for motor vehicle propuls ion, providing a level of comfort and ease of operation that could not be achieved by the gasoline cars of the time. The intern al combustion engine (ICE) is the dominant propuls ion method for motor vehicles but electric power has remained commonplace in other vehicle types, such as trains and s maller vehicles of all types.