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1. Network topology
2. Topology • Topology refers to the layout of connected devices on a network. • Here, some logical layout of topology. oMesh oStar oBus oRing oTree and Hybrid
3. Network Topology
4. Mesh Topology • Here every device has a point to point link to every other device. • Node 1 node must be connected with n-1 nodes. • A fully connected mesh can have n(n-1)/2 physical channels to link n devices. • It must have n-1 I/O ports.
5. Mesh Topology Advantages: 1. They use dedicated links so each link can only carry its own data load. So traffic problem can be avoided. 2. It is robust. If any one link get damaged it cannot affect others. 3. It gives privacy and security.(Message travels along a dedicated link) 4. Fault identification and fault isolation are easy.
6. Mesh Topology
7. Mesh Topology
8. Mesh Topology • Disadvantages: 1. The amount of cabling and the number of I/O ports required are very large. Since every device is connected to each devices through dedicated links. 2. The sheer bulk of wiring is larger then the available space. 3. Hardware required to connected each device is highly expensive.
9. Mesh Topology • Applications: 1. Telephone Regional office. 2. WAN.(Wide Area Network).
10. Star Topology • Here each device has a dedicated point-to-point link to the central controller called “Hub”(Act as a Exchange). • There is no direct traffic between devices. • The transmission are occurred only through the central “hub”. • When device 1 wants to send data to device 2; First sends the data to hub. Which then relays the data to the other connected device.
11. Star Topology
12. Star Topology
13. Star Topology • Advantages: 1. Less expensive then mesh since each device is connected only to the hub. 2. Installation and configuration are easy. 3. Less cabling is need then mesh. 4. Robustness.(if one link fails, only that links is affected. All other links remain active) 5. Easy to fault identification & to remove parts. 6. No distruptions to the network then connecting(or) removing devices.
14. Star Topology • Disadvantages: 1. Even it requires less cabling then mesh when compared with other topologies it still large.(Ring or bus). 2. Dependency(whole n/w dependent on one single point(hub). When it goes down. The whole system is dead.
15. Applications • Star topology used in Local Area Networks(LANs). • High speed LAN often used STAR.
16. Bus Topology • A bus topology is multipoint. • Here one long cable act as a backbone to link all the devices are connected to the backbone by drop lines and taps. • Drop line- is the connection b/w the devices and the cable. • Tap- is the splitter that cut the main link. • This allows only one device to transmit at a time.
17. Bus Topology
18. Bus Topology
19. Bus Topology
20. Bus Topology
21. Bus Topology • A device want to communicate with other device on the n/ws sends a broadcast message onto the wire all other devices see. • But only the intended devices accepts and process the message.
22. Bus Topology • Advantages: 1. Ease of installation 2. Less cabling Disadvantages: 1. Difficult reconfiguration and fault isolation. 2. Difficult to add new devices. 3. Signal reflection at top can degradation in quality. 4. If any fault in backbone can stops all transmission.
23. Bus Topology • Applications: • Most computer motherboard.
24. Ring Topology • Here each device has a dedicated connection with two devices on either side. • The signal is passed in one direction from device to device until it reaches the destination and each device have repeater. • When one device received signals instead of intended another device, its repeater then regenerates the data and passes them along. • To add or delete a device requires changing only two connections.