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Thread: Summer training at bokaro steel plant

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    Pdf 32 Summer training at bokaro steel plant


    Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL) is the leading steel-making company in India. It is a fully integrated iron and steel maker, producing both basic and special steels for domestic construction, engineering, power, railway, automotive and defence industries and for sale in export markets. SAIL is also among the five Maharatnas of the country's Central Public Sector Enterprises.

    SAIL manufactures and sells a broad range of steel products, including hot and cold rolled sheets and coils, galvanised sheets, electrical sheets, structurals, railway products, plates, bars and rods, stainless steel and other alloy steels. SAIL produces iron and steel at five integrated plants and three special steel plants, located principally in the eastern and central regions of India and situated close to domestic sources of raw materials, including the Company's iron ore, limestone and dolomite mines. The company has the distinction of being India’s second largest producer of iron ore and of having the country’s second largest mines network. This gives SAIL a competitive edge in terms of captive availability of iron ore, limestone, and dolomite which are inputs for steel making.

    SAIL's wide range of long and flat steel products are much in demand in the domestic as well as the international market. This vital responsibility is carried out by SAIL's own Central Marketing Organisation (CMO) that transacts business through its network of 37 Branch Sales Offices spread across the four regions, 25 Departmental Warehouses, 42 Consignment Agents and 27 Customer Contact Offices. CMO’s domestic marketing effort is supplemented by its ever widening network of rural dealers who meet the demands of the smallest customers in the remotest corners of the country. With the total number of dealers over 2000 , SAIL's wide marketing spread ensures availability of quality steel in virtually all the districts of the country.

    SAIL's International Trade Division ( ITD), in New Delhi- an ISO 9001:2000 accredited unit of CMO, undertakes exports of Mild Steel products and Pig Iron from SAIL’s five integrated steel plants.

    With technical and managerial expertise and know-how in steel making gained over four decades, SAIL's Consultancy Division (SAILCON) at New Delhi offers services and consultancy to clients world-wide.

    SAIL has a well-equipped Research and Development Centre for Iron and Steel (RDCIS) at Ranchi which helps to produce quality steel and develop new technologies for the steel industry. Besides, SAIL has its own in-house Centre for Engineering and Technology (CET), Management Training Institute (MTI) and Safety Organisation at Ranchi. Our captive mines are under the control of the Raw Materials Division in Kolkata. The Environment Management Division and Growth Division of SAIL operate from their headquarters in Kolkata. Almost all our plants and major units are ISO Certified.

    Bokaro Steel Plant - the fourth integrated plant in the Public Sector - started taking shape in 1965 in collaboration with the Soviet Union. It was originally incorporated as a limited company on 29th January 1964, and was later merged with SAIL, first as a susidiary and then as a unit, through the Public Sector Iron & Steel Companies (Restructuring & Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1978.

    The Plant is hailed as the country’s first Swadeshi steel plant, built with maximum indigenous content in terms of equipment, material and know-how. Its first Blast Furnace started on 2nd October 1972 and the first phase of 1.7 MT ingot steel was completed on 26th February 1978 with the commissioning of the third Blast Furnace. All units of 4 MT stage have already been commissioned and the 90s' modernisation has further upgraded this to 4.5 MT of liquid steel.

    The new features added in modernisation of SMS-II include two twin-strand slab casters along with a Steel Refining Unit. The Steel Refining Unit was inaugurated on 19th September, 1997 and the Continuous Casting Machine on 25th April, 1998. The modernisation of the Hot Strip Mill saw addition of new features like high pressure de-scalers, work roll bending, hydraulic automatic gauge control, quick work roll change,etc.

    A new hydraulic coiler has been added and two of the existing ones revamped. With the completion of Hot Strip Mill modernisation, Bokaro is producing top quality hot rolled products that are well accepted in the global market.

    Bokaro is designed to produce flat products like Hot Rolled Coils, Hot Rolled Plates, Hot Rolled Sheets, Cold Rolled Coils, Cold Rolled Sheets, Tin Mill Black Plates (TMBP) and Galvanised Plain and Corrugated (GP/GC) Sheets. Bokaro has provided a strong raw material base for a variety of modern engineering industries including automobile, pipe and tube, LPG cylinder, barrel and drum producing industries.


    TBS is the blower station where steam is converted into suitable form of air at required pressure and that steam is circulated to entire plant for its proper functioning.

    TBS is a turbine- blower set where steam makes the turbine rotates and blower is coupled and air is generated.Turbo Compressors are also installed where left over gases are cooled and liquified and transported to boiler for further usage.

    · At SAIL 8 blowers are installed.
    · Specification of equipments-
    · Turbines- 39 blades (37 reaction and 2 impulse blades)
    · Blowers- 18 stages
    · Impeller- 5 stages
    · Turbo Compressors- Temperature- 160degree cent.


    ODPL are used to supply steam to the required areas through pipes.
    Here the pressure of steam is reduced to about 8 to 12 kg/cm2.




    ERS is the place where electrical apparatus are repaired at large scale.These are the areas which generally deals with the repairement of burnt motors and magnets.

    Motor Repairing-
    Here motors of different powers are brought whose windings are worn out or burnt. New windings are installed depending upon the type of winding used.
    Before the burnt motor is completely removed its internal arrangements are noted down and accordingly it is repaired.

    Material Used-
    Super enamel copper wires (SECW) are used as the winding in the motors.
    Milinex and Nomex (generally PVC) are place between the two winding struture as a insulation.After completion 6 leads are taken out which are cornnected as star or delta as per the specification.

    Physical apperance of motor-:

    • Circumference with nut and bolt- DC Motor
    • Circumference with slotted areas- AC Motor

    Determination of poles-
    [ P= number of slots/(number of coil groups*3)]

    Magnet Repair-

    Here burnt magnet coils are repaired and made it be used again.Repairing is done by applying Aesbestos tape over the burnt coil.Aesbestos is used as a repairing material as it has a heat resistance upto 180 degree cent.

    Brazing machine-
    It’s a substitute of welding as its to join deformed strip of coil.

    In SAIL-
    Two types of magnets are there-

    · Length- 65 inch (4 Coils & 400 turns/coil)
    · Width- 30 mm
    · Thick – 1 mm
    · Resisitance – 3.56 ohm

    · Length- 62 inch (4 coil & 300 turns/coil),42 inch, 36 inch, 16 inch
    · Width – 25mm
    · Thick- 1 mm
    · Resistance- 2.97 ohm


    The main function of this department is to execute major capital repair jobs during capital repair of main production shops like BF,SP,SMS Slabbing Mill,HSM and CRM.It also carries out major electrical repair in the planned and unplanned situation(Breakdown) in the plant and modification jobs required during equipment shutdown.

    Preparatory work of BF Capital Repair:-
    Installation of enabling power network and power distribution boards.Power is mainly drawn from 3 pn, 4pn or 5pn depending upon the location of the furnaces.Insatllation of 220V and 24V lighting network.

    During capital repair of any sinter band, CRE take up about 22LT motors for medium repair in ERS, After medium repair in ERS reinstallation of motors andtheir alignment is done by CRE.

    Electrical jobs of cranes (insulators, panels and trailing cables changing)LT and CT trolley line repair and incoming power supply system .

    * Electrical jobs during capital repair of soaker cranes and slab yard cranes.
    * LT and CT trolley line revamping in soaking pit area and slag yard area cranes.

    *Electrical jobs during capital repair of cranes
    *Thermal insulation of electrical conduit

    *Revisioning / cleaning of busbars
    *Crane electrical repair jobs

    8. RMP
    *Replacement of LT cables as per need

    *Trolley line maintenance.
    *Replacement of various cables in cranes.
    *Trailing cable maintenance and replacement.
    *Capital Repair Of CRM
    -Maintenance of M busbars in motor rooms 4,5,6.
    -Trolley line maintenance
    -Cable replacement as per requirement in various units



    The GENERAL MAINT.-ELECT department is a part of Central Electrical Maintenance. It is situated near the Steel gate towards CEZ gate. Its task is to ensure smooth running of electrical equipments of Shops of the plant. And also to avoid costly stoppage and achieving quality product economically.

    Since in the giant organization where bulk of machinery works simultaneously and the production is flow based, any interruption will directly affect maintenance department provide the necessary help andguidance. maintenance department provide the necessary help andguidance. maintenance department provide the necessary help andguidance. maintenance department provide the necessary help andguidance.


    · To maintain healthiness of electrical equipments.

    · To improve and enhance the functioning of electrical equipment by carryin out capital repair and revamping jobs in major production shops.

    · To repair and improve the availability of Motors, Welding transformers, Control & lighting transformers, Rectifier units, Battery Chargers and Electro Magnetic Rollers in the plant.


    The functions of this department are as given below:-

    · Maintenance, Repair and Rewinding of Induction Motors up to 30kw.
    · Maintenance, Repair & Rewinding of Control and Lighting transformers.
    · Maintenance & Repair of Rectifier units and Battery Chargers.
    · Maintenance & Repair of Welding Machine.
    · Maintenance & Repair of Electro Magnetic Rollers of HRCF deptt.


    These are the areas where motors and machinry’s are repaired of power greater than 200KW.
    Here mainly online monitoring are done. They monitor the running condition of the machinery and hence panels are installed to observe the running parameters.

    In SAIL

    · Rolling Mills- DC Motors
    · Other Areas- AC Motors

    AC Motors are preffered through out the plant as DC Motors are costlier due to the presence of contact brushes.But in rolling mills as we need constant speed so we install DC Motors.

    Induction Motors are also installed for speed controlling purpose and inverson phenomenon.

    Main defects are due to vibrations caused in machines.

    Measurement of vibrations-
    · Vertical
    · Axial
    · Horizontal

    Problems causing vibrations-
    · Unbalance
    · Misalignme


    Here total Power Plant is divided into two sections-
    Ø Thermal power plant(TPP)
    Ø Captive power plant(CPP)

    Production capacity-

    3 Turbine and Turbo generator setTotal capacity= 122MW

    3 Turbine and Turbo generator setTheirfore total production of the plant is 302Mw
    Here turbines used are of 24 stages.Where it has 21 reaction blades and 3 impulse blade


    Most used signalling type in railways is Route Relay Interlocking(RRI).
    In SAIL-
    5 Stations are their-


    Ø 110V DC- For point motor machine
    Ø 24V DC- For internal relay
    Ø 36V DC- For control of external work
    Ø 110V AC- For signal supply
    Ø 12V DC- For panel indication


    Distribution Network Department aims at “Supplying Uninterrupted Power” to different units of the Plant & Township and to “Restore Power” to the affected areas in case of any eventuality. To cater to this; the entire plant has been divided into Bulk Load Centres (MSDSs) and Distribution Centres (RP Substations). The bulk load centres receive power at 132KV, step it down to 11KV or 6.6KV and distribute power. The distribution centres receive power through cables at 11KV or 6.6KV from the bulk centres in their close vicinity and distribute power at the same voltage or may have step down transformer for different voltage levels.

    AT SAIL-


    — Works for supplying uninterrupted power supply to all area of the plant, load
    — management, shutdown arrangement for maintenance and normalization.
    — Works for 24x7 in shifts.
    — Most critical.
    — Main control room is at MSDS-1.


    Responsible for proper running of switch gear (CB and accessories), oil filled transformer
    Second most critical section for operation of DNW and providing UPS.
    Plant is divided in three zone for maintenance purpose:
    Zone A – MSDS 1
    Zone B – Iron Zone.
    Zone C – Mill Zone.

    TORF :-

    Transformer oil reclamation facility monitors proper working of oil filled transformer.
    Analysis of oil and filtration of oil is to be taken care of by this section of DNW.

    CLG & ALD :

    Taking care of cables , laying , maintenance and fault rectification.
    Taking care of illumination of entire plant area and street lighting linked with production and security.


    Electronics Lab in SAIL is the place where different electronics equipments are tested and repaired.Here different materials are tested and repaired


    Here thyristor are tested based on the applied voltages and calculated leakage current and several other parameters like holding current and latching current.

    Then most of the PCB boards are repaired at the centre using PLC.Many company’s have their different PCB repairing equipments and each PCB’S are repaired at their respective slots

    Electric cell :- has a positive terminal and a negative terminal. The symbol of an electric cell has a longer line and a shorter line. The longer line is the positive terminal and the shorter line is the negative terminal.

    Battery :- A battery is a combination of two or more cells. In a battery the positive terminal of one cell is connected to the negative terminal of another cell. Devices like torches, transistors, toys, TV remote controls use batteries.


    RMHP is the area where raw material are handles and kept uniformly on bed and hence furthur processed and send to the required areas in the plant.
    Materials handled-
    · Coal
    · Lime Stone
    · Flux
    Work done in RMHP-
    · Tippling (4 tipplers)
    · Conveying (length range from 40 to 45 KM)
    · Stacking (7 stackers)
    · Reclaiming (6 reclaimer)

    Ø Squirrel Cage and Double Squirrel Cage Induction Motor are used in big conveyers.( 250KW power)

    Ø Slip Ring Motors are used in Tippler, Crane, Tram Car Pusher(TCP) as here high starting torque is required.

    Ø Variable Voltage Variable Frequency(VVVF) systems are used in RMHP.

    Ø Special motors are installed which remains loaded even when speed is zero, and it is applicable at stacker, reclaimer, power cable reeling drum(PCRD).

    Raw Material Handling plant is meant for transporting materials from Raw material yard/Base mix yard to various process units of the plant. The Major Raw materials required for Iron and Steel making are are Iron ore lump, Iron Ore fines, Sized iron ore, Flux limestone / dolomite, manganese, Quartzite coking coal, Non-coking coal ( for Boiler operation & For Pulverized coal injection )and coke. Lump iron ores, iron ore fines and flux such as limestone and dolomite received by railway rake are unloaded in wagon tippler and stored in open storage yard with help of various stockyard machines.

    Iron ore lump, flux such as limestone and dolomite, Coke is reclaimed by suitable stock yard machine and are crushed in Ore crushing plant, Flux crushing plant and coke crushing plant respectively to produce the size required. The above material is proportionately stacked by suitable stacking machine in base mix yard and blended while reclaiming by blender reclaimer, while preparing base mix which then transported to Sinter plant for sinter production.

    For feeding material to new blast furnace, sized ore and flux is reclaimed by stock yard machine from respective yard and conveyed by conveyor. Sinter produced in sinter plant and coke from existing/new coke ovens is transported directly to BF-3 stock house by conveyor. Purchased coke and necessary calcined lime from stock yard and new lime calcining plant respectively is transported to SMS by Conveyor. The waste product from the plant is mainly dust and method of their disposal is through dust suppression system and inter plant transportation.

    The Raw Materials and Material Handling Plant receives, blends, stores and supplies different raw materials to Blast Furnace, Sinter Plant and Refractory Materials Plant as per their requirements. It also maintains a buffer stock to take care of any supply interruptions.

    Some 9 MT of different raw materials viz. Iron ore fines and lumps, Limestone (BFand SMS grade), Dolomite lumps and chips, hard Coal and Manganese ore are handled.

    Iron ore and fluxes are sourced from the captive mines of SAIL situated at Kiriburu, Meghahataburu, Bhawanathpur, Tulsidamar and Kuteshwar. Washed coal is supplied from different washeries at Dugda, Kathara, Kargali and Giddi, while raw coal is obtained from Jharia coalfields.


    Hot Metal from the Blast Furnaces is converted into steel by blowing 99.5% pure Oxygen through it in the LD converter. Suitable alloying elements are added to produce different types and variety of producing steel and their by products.
    Bokaro has two Steel Melting Shops - SMS-I and SMS-II. SMS-I has 5 LD converters of 130T capacity each. It is capable of producing Rimming steel through the ingot route. SMS-II has 2 LD converters, each of 300 T capacity, with suppressed combustion system and Continuous Casting facility. It produces various Killed and Semi-Killed steels.

    The main function of Steel melting shop are as follows:-
    • Oxygen blowing process.
    • It receives hot metals from blast furnace.
    • Output of sms1 is in ingot form.
    • Output of sms2 is in slab form.
    • From sms2 it goes to continuous casting shop
    • Steel melting- process of removal of impurities like carbon and silicon.

    Coke oven

    It is a shop where coal is charged and converted to coke.Here the coal comes through different countries also like Australia,Newzealand,China,Russia.
    There are 81 coal storage chambers where coal is stored and then from here coal is send to the charging oven where coal is charged at a temp. of 900 degree C to 950 degree C.
    After the coal is charged it is loaded in the quenching car which brings the charged coal to the quenching chamber where it is charged and then it becomes coke.

    The main function of coke oven are as follows :-
    Battery of ovens.Coal is converted into coke in anaerobic conditions at temperature-1250 degrees celsius.

    Cars involved for production :-

    § Pusher car.
    § Guiding car.
    § Quenching car.
    § Charging car.

    The Coke Oven Complex at Bokaro converts prime coking coal from Jharia, Dugda and Moonidih and medium coking coal form Kargali, Kathara and Mahuda, blended with imported coal, into high quality coke for the Blast Furnaces, recovering valuable by-products like Anthracene Oil, Benzene, Toluene, Xylene, Light Solvent Naphtha, Ammonium Sulphate and Extra-hard Pitch in the process.Bokaro is situated in the prime coal belt of the country.
    The Coke Oven battery has 8 batteries with 69 ovens each, maintained meticulously in terms of fugitive emission control, use of phenolic water and other pollution control meas

    Bokaro has five 2000-cubic metre Blast Furnaces that produce molten iron - Hot Metal - for steel making. Bell-less Top Charging, modernised double Cast Houses, Coal Dust Injection and Cast House Slag Granulation technologies have been deployed in the furnaces. The process of iroin-making is automated, using PLC Charging System and Computer Controlled Supervision System. The wastes products like Blast Furnace slag and gas are either used directly within plant or processed for recycling / re-use.


    Coking coals are the coals which when heated in the absence of air, first melt, go in the plastic state, swell and resolidify to produce a solid coherent mass called coke. When coking coal is heated in absence of air, a series of physical and chemical changes take place with the evolution of gases and vapours, and the solid residue left behind is called coke.

    Conventional cokemaking is done in a coke oven battery of ovens sandwiched between heating walls. They are carbonised at a temperature around 1000o-1100oC upto a certain degree of devolatization to produce metallurgical coke of desired mechanical and thermo-chemical properties. A schematic diagram of Coke Oven Battery is given in Fig.below.

    Schematic Diagram of Coke Oven Battery

    During carbonisation, coking coals undergo transformation into plastic state at around 350o-400o C swell and then resolidify at around 500o-550o C to give semi-coke and then coke. In coke ovens, after coal is charged inside the oven, plastic layers are formed adjacent to the

    heating walls, and with the progress of time, the plastic layers move towards the centre of ovenfrom either side and ultimately meet each other at the centre. During cokemaking, two

    The various modification in the coke making which have improved coke yield and reduced sp. Energy consumption are :

    Partial Briquetting of Coal Charge (PBCC): The technology involves charging about 30% coal blend in the form of briquettes. Briquettes are prepared using a binder (pitch/ pitch+tar) upto 2. to 3.0% of charge. Coke quality significantly improves as a result of increase in bulk density of charge.

    Stamp Charging of Coal : The technology basically involves formation of a stable coal cake with finely crushed coal (88-90% - 3mm) by mechanically stamping outside the oven and pushing the cake thus formed inside the oven for carbonisation. Coal moisture is maintained at 8-10% for the formation of cake. Due to stamping, bulk density of charge increases by 30-35% causing significant improvement in micum indices and CSR values of coke. Oven productivity increases by 10-12% & there is a possibility of using inferior coking coals to the extent of about 20%.

    Selective Crushing of Coals : In this technology, the aim is to improve homogeneity of reactive & inert components in coal by reducing the difference properties of coarse & fine size fractions. For petrographically heterogeneous coals like Indian coals, this technology is very helpful.

    Dry Coke Quenching : Dry quenching of coke is a major technology for the post-carbonisation treatment which has come up in a big way. Here the red-hot coke is cooled by inert gases, instead of conventional water quenching. It not only effectively utilises the thermal energy of red-hot coke (80% of the sensible heat of coke can be recovered & made use of for production of steam) but also results in improvement of the coke quality (M10 index can be improved by 1 point).


    Charge material is put on a sinter machine in two layers, the first layer may vary in thickness from 30 to 75 mm, a 12 to 20 mm sinter fraction is used, also referred to as the hearth layer. The second layer, which covers the first layer, consists of mixed materials, making for a total bed height up to 600 mm (may vary from 350 to 660 mm). The mixed materials are applied with a drum feeder and nine roll feeders. The upper layer is evened out using a leveler. Then the charge enters the ignition furnace, where there are two rows of multislit burners. The first zone of the ignition furnace where eleven burners are installed is called the ignition zone, and the next part of the ignition furnace where 12 burners are installed is called the soaking zone (also referred to as the annealing zone). A total of 23 burners are used in the ignition furnace. The temperature is maintained between 1150 and 1250 °C in the ignition zone and between 900 and 1000 °C in the soaking zone to prevent sudden quenching of the sintered layer. The top 5 mm from screens of screen house two goes to the conveyor carrying the sinter for the blast furnace and along with blast furnace grade sinter either goes to sinter storage bunkers or to BF bunkers. Blast furnace grade sinter consists of sinter sizes 5 to 12 mm as well as 20 mm and above.


    1. Better use of the huge quantity of iron ore fines generated at mines.
    2. Gainful use of various metallurgical wastes like flue dust, mill scale, lime dust, sludge, etc.
    3. Use of super fluxed sinter eliminates raw flux from the blast furnace burden. This leads to considerable coke saving and productivity improvement in blast furnaces.
    4. Due to the higher reducibility of super fluxed sinter, direct reduction of iron oxide is enhanced, which contributes to further coke saving.
    Sintering is a technology for agglomeration of iron ore fines into useful Blast Furnace burden material. This technology was developed for the treatment of the waste fines in the early 20th cenmtury. Since then sinter has become the widely accepted and preferred Blast Furnace burden material. Presently more than 70% of hot metal in the world is produced through the sinter. In India, approximately 50% of hot metal is produced using sinter feed in Blast Furnaces.

    The major advantages of using sinter in BFs are :
    · Use of iron ore fines, coke breeze, metallurgical wastes, lime, dolomite for hot metal production
    • Better reducibility and other high temperature properties
    • Increased BF productivity
    • Improved quality of hot metal
    • Reduction in coke rate in blast furnaces
    SINTERING PROCESS A Sinter Plant typically comprise the following sub-units as shown below.

    The raw materials used are as follows - Iron ore fines (-10 mm), coke breeze (-3 mm), Lime stone & dolomite fines (-3mm) and other metallurgical wastes. The proportioned raw materials are mixed and moistened in a mixing drum. The mix is loaded on sinter machine through a feeder onto a moving grate (pallet) and then the mix is rolled through segregation plate so that the coarse materials settle at the bottom.

    The top surface of the mix is ignited through stationary burners at 1200oC. As the pallet moves forward, the air is sucked through wind box situated under the grate. A high temperature combustion zone is created in the charge -bed due to combustion of solid fuel of the mix and regeneration of heat of incandescent sinter and outgoing gases. Due to forward movement of pallet , the sintering process travels vertically down. The different zones created on a sinter-bed are shown in the adjoining figure.

    Sinter is produced as a combined result of locally limited melting , grain boundary diffusion and recrystallisation of iron oxides.

    On the completion of sintering process, finished sinter cake is crushed and cooled. The cooled sinter is screened and + 6 mm fraction is despatched to blast furnace and -6 mm is recirculated as return sinter.

    For feeding material to new blast furnace, sized ore and flux is reclaimed by stock yard machine from respective yard and conveyed by conveyor. Sinter produced in sinter plant and coke from existing/new coke ovens is transported directly to BF-3 stock house by conveyor. Purchased coke and necessary calcined lime from stock yard and new lime calcining plant respectively is transported to SMS by Conveyor. The waste product from the plant is mainly dust and method of their disposal is through dust suppression system and inter plant transportation.


    The layout of blast furnance is as follows :-

    It is a chamber where coal and iron ores are charged. The charging is done through turbo- blower station which supplies air to the furnance. Its capacity is 1400 tone at a time.

    Bokaro has five 2000-cubic metre Blast Furnaces that produce molten iron - Hot Metal - for steel making. Bell-less Top Charging, modernised double Cast Houses, Coal Dust Injection and Cast House Slag Granulation technologies have been deployed in the furnaces. The process of iroin-making is automated, using PLC Charging System and Computer Controlled Supervision System. The wastes products like Blast Furnace slag and gas are either used directly within plant or processed.

    Continuous Casting Shop

    The Continuous Casting Shop has two double-strand slab casting machines, producing high quality slabs of width ranging from 950 mm to 1850 mm. CCS has a Ladle Furnace and a Ladle Rinsing Station for secondary refining of the steel. The Ladle Furnace is used for homogenising the chemistry and temperature. The concast machines have straight moulds, unique in the country, to produce internally clean slabs.

    Argon injection in the shroud and tundish nozzle prevent re-oxidation and nitrogen pick-up, maintaining steel quality. The eddy current based automatic mould level control, unique in the country, gives better surface quality. The air mist cooling and continuous straightening facilities keep the slabs free from internal defects like cracks. The casters are fully automated with dynamic cooling, on-line slab cutting, de-burring and customised marking.The shop is equipped with advanced Level-3 automated control systems for scheduling, monitoring and process optimisation.

    CCS produces steel of Drawing, Deep Drawing, Extra Deep Drawing, Boiler and Tin Plate quality. It also produces low alloy steels like LPG, WTCR, SAILCOR and API Grade.

    Hot Strip Mill

    Slabs from CCS and Slabbing Mill are processed in the state-of-the-art Hot Strip Mill. The fully automatic Hot Strip Mill with an annual capacity of 3.363 million tonnes has a wide range of products - thickness varying from 1.2 mm to 20 mm and width from 750 mm to 1850 mm. The mill is equipped with state-of-the-art automation and controls, using advanced systems for process optimisation with on-line real time computer control, PLCs and technological control system.

    Walking Beam Reheating Furnaces provide uniform heating with reduction in heat losses, ensuring consistency in thickness throughout the length. High-pressure De-scaling System helps eliminate rolled-in scale. Edgers in the roughing group maintain width within close tolerance. The roughing group has a roughing train of a Vertical Scale Breaker, one 2-high Roughing Stand and four 4-high Universal Roughing Stands. The finishing group consists of a Flying Shear, Finishing Scale Breaker and seven 4-high Finishing Stands. Hydraulic Automatic Gauge Control system in the finishing stands ensures close thickness tolerance. The Work Roll Bending System ensures improved strip crown and flatness. The rolling speed at the last finishing stand is between 7.5-17.5 metres per second. The Laminar Cooling System is a unique feature to control coiling temperature over a wide range within close tolerance. The Hydraulic Coilers maintain perfect coil shape with On-line Strapping system. On-line Robotic Marking on the coil helps in tracking its identity.

    Auxiliary Shops

    To meet its needs for maintenance and repairs, Bokaro has a cluster of engineering shops such as MachineShop, Forge Shop, Structural Shop, Steel Foundry, Ingot Mould Foundry, Cast Iron and Non-Ferrous Foundry, Electrical Repair Shop and Power Facilities Repair Shop in addition to shop-specific Area Repair Shops. Most of the repairs and maintainance requirements of the plant are met in-house.

    The auxiliary shops and maintenance wings of Bokaro Steel, aided by in-house design teams, have executed a number of highly sophisticated procurement-substitution, productivity enhancement and quality improvement jobs, saving revenues and enhancing equipment availability.

    The expertise and operational scale of these departments, along with the service departments, makes Bokaro a truly integrated plant, housing many virtual enterprises within Bokaro Steel.

    Cold Rolling Mill

    The Cold Rolling Mill at Bokaro uses state-of-the-art technology to produce high quality sheet gauge material, Tin Mill Black Plate and Galvanised Products. Cold rolling is done to produce thinner gauge strips of very smooth and dense finish, with better mechanical properties than hot rolling strips. Rolling is done well below re-crystallization temperature without any prior heating of the material. The products of CRM are used for deep drawing purposes, automobile bodies, steel furnitures, drums and barrels, railway coaches, other bending and shaping jobs and coated steels. The CRM complex comprises of two Pickling Lines (including a high speed Hydrochloric Acid Pickling Line with re-generation facilities), two Tandem Mills, an Electrolytic Cleaning Line, a Continuous Annealing Line, Bell Annealing Furnaces, two Skin-Pass Mills, a Double Cold Reduction Mill (DCR), Shearing Lines, Slitting Lines and a packaging and despatch section. The 5-stand Tandem Mill is capable of rolling sheet gauges upto 0.15 mm thickness. It has sophisticated Hydraulic Automatic Gauge Control, computerised mill regulation and optimisation control.


    Mill Capabilities
    Shop Products Facility Annual Capacity (,000 Tonnes) Thickness range (mm) Width range (mm) Length (metre)
    HSM HR Coils/ Sheets/ Plates Continuous Mill 3955 1.6 -16 900-1850
    HRCF HR Sheets/ Plates Shearing Line-I - 5-10 1800 2.5-12
    HR Sheets/ Plates Shearing Line-II 1.6-4 1500 1.5-4.5
    HR Coil Slitting Line
    CRM 1660
    CR Coils/ Sheets CRM-I complex 0.63-2.5 700-1850
    CR Coils/ Sheets CRM-II complex 0.63-1.6 650-1250
    CR Coils/ Sheets, TMBP DCR Mill 100 0.22-0.8 650-1040
    GP Coils & Sheets GC Sheets HDGL 170 0.3-1.6 650-1250

    Special Grades of Steel
    Special Steel Grades Application
    SAE 1541 Automobile Industry
    MC 11 Cycle Industry
    SPC 370/390 Cycle Industry
    C 15 Cycle Industry
    API X-42, X-46, X-52, X-56, X-60 (SAILAPI) Pipe Line
    SAILCOR (corrosion resistant) Railways
    SAILMEDSi (Medium Silicon Steel) Heavy Electrical Winding
    SAILPROP Propeller Shaft
    Strapping Steel (for internal use only) Strapping Finished Products
    Full-hard Galvanised Coil Extra hard roof of houses
    Cold Rolled Medium Electrical Steel Transformer core
    Extra-low Carbon Extra Deep Drawing (HR & CR)

    White goods
    DMR 249A Grade Steel Defence Research Development Organisation (DRDO) for fabrication of Submarine parts (import substitution)
    E460/E500/E550 Floating bridges for Defence. For M/S BEML; for making. (import substitution)
    IS8500 Fe 540B high strength low alloy steel with UTS value in excess of 540 Mpa Kolkata fly-over
    Low Carbon, Low Manganese, High Strength Structural Steel without microalloying (Carbon 0.10% ) Structural purposes. Thermo-mechanically Controlled Processing.

    Nitration-grade Benzene
    Nitration-grade Toluene
    Light Solvent Naphtha
    Still Bottom Oil
    Hot PressedNaphthalene
    Anthracene Oil
    Extra-hard Pitch
    Hard-medium Pitch (solid/ liquid)
    Ammonium Sulphate
    Pitch Creosote Mixture
    BF Granulated Slag
    Liquid Nitrogen
    Phenol Fraction

    Walking Beam Reheating Furnaces provide uniform heating with reduction in heat losses, ensuring consistency in thickness throughout the length. High-pressure De-scaling System helps eliminate rolled-in scale. Edgers in the roughing group maintain width within close tolerance. The roughing group has a roughing train of a Vertical Scale Breaker, one 2-high Roughing Stand and four 4-high Universal Roughing .


    All the control and lighting transformers from the deferent departments comes in this section. After preliminary testing the entire required job are done in this section.

    Work done in this section:-

    — Preliminary testing of machines.
    — Dismantling of transformer cores of burnt transformers.
    — Rewinding of coils.
    — Varnishing of coils.
    — Assembling of cores.

    — Testing of transformers after proper connection by giving required input voltage and measuring output voltage.
    — After above work jobs are sent for despatch.
    — Voltage stabilizers are also repaired in this section.


    Electro magnetic Rollers of HRCF department are repaired in this section.

    Work done in this section:-
    · Preliminary testing of Magnetic coils.
    · Dismantling of roller assembly.
    · Required work is done.
    · Assembling of Electro Magnetic Roller.
    · Testing and dispatch.


    Welding generators and welding transformers are repaired in this section. After preliminary testing required work are done here. After repair and testing, machines are sent for despatch.Rectifier units and Battery chargers are being repair in this section.


    It is the fourth integrated steel plant in the public Sector conceived in 1959. Bokaro Steel Plant actually started taking shape in 1965 in collaboration with the Soviet Union. The collaboration agreement was signed on 25th Jan 1965. The design of the plant was envisaged with a capacity of 1.7MT per annum in stage –I and 4 MT per annum in stage-II with provision for further expansion. The construction work started on 6th April 1968.

    Bokaro steel plant was originally incorporated a limited company on 29th Jan 1964. with the formation of the Steel Authority Of India Limited (SAIL) on 24th Jan 1973, it became a wholly owned subsidiary of SAIL and on 1st May 1978 it was eventually merged with SAIL through the public sector iron & steel companies (Restructuring & Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1978.

    The plant is hailed as the country’s first Swadeshi steel plant, built with maximum indigenous content in terms of equipment, material and know-how. Its first phase of 1.7MT ingots steel commenced on 2nd October 1972 with the commissioning of the first Blast Furnace and completed on 26th Feb 1978 with the commissioning of the 3rd Blast Furnace.

    All the envisaged units of 4MT stage have already been commissioned. The plant is designed to produce flat products like Hot Rolled Coils, Hot Rolled Plates, Hot Rolled Sheets, Cold Rolled Coils, Cold Rolled Sheets, Tin Mill Black Plates (TMBP) and Galvanised Plain and Corrugated (GP/GC) Sheets.

    Bokaro has provided a strong Raw Material base for a variety of modern engineering industries include automobile, Pipe & Tube, LPG, cylinder, Barrel and Drum producing industries. To keep pace with the latest trends in steel making, the first phase of modernisation was sanctioned on 23rd July 1993 and completed in 1997. Benefits of the modernisation have been reaped; Bokaro steel is continuously upgrading its various production facilities to bring improvement productivity and quality. 2nd phase modernisation is going on.


    SLABBING MILL :- Maintenance/Repair of ingot buggy trolley lines/reactors of main drive motors, bus bars during shop shut down & capital repair.

    H.S.M. :- Maintenance/Repair of charging & discharging side roughing motors, roller table motors, delay table motors, reactor and bus-bar of finishing main drive motors during shop shut down & capital repairs.

    S.M.S.-II :-

    i) Maintenance/Repair of HMTC trolley lines during shop shut down period.

    ii) Fabrication of brackets for Resistance-Box for Hot Metal Cranes.

    Rewinding of slag car motors of BF, SMS-I & II, Scarfing crane motors of Slabbing Mill specially and other motors up to 22kw of other shops of the plant. Rewinding/ revamping of welding transformers, Rectifiers, Control & lighting transformers, Battery Chargers etc.Repair of Electro Magnetic Rollers of HRC. Repair & maintenance of crane in workshop.

    STORE :-

    In order to ensure uninterrupted supply of all tools, tackles other maintenance equipments & consumables materials, the deptt. maintains its own stores. The store is equipped with all the necessary tools and tackles, wires, insulators, welding equipments, cutting equipments, oxygen and acetylene cylinder etc.

    Other Activities :-

    i) Quality Circle
    ii) Suggestion Scheme

    Major Units

    Integrated Steel Plants
    · Bhilai Steel Plant (BSP) in Chhattisgarh
    · Durgapur Steel Plant (DSP) in West Bengal
    · Rourkela Steel Plant (RSP) in Orissa
    · Bokaro Steel Plant (BSL) in Jharkhand
    · IISCO Steel Plant (ISP) in West Bengal

    Special Steel Plants
    · Alloy Steels Plants (ASP) in West Bengal
    · Salem Steel Plant (SSP) in Tamil Nadu
    · Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Plant (VISL) in Karnataka

    Maharashtra Electros melt Limited (MEL) in Maharashtra

    Joint Ventures

    NTPC SAIL Power Company Pvt. Limited (NSPCL): A 50:50 joint venture between Steel Authority of India Ltd (SAIL) and National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd (NTPC Ltd); manages SAIL’s captive power plants at Rourkela, Durgapur and Bhilai with a combined capacity of 814 megawatts (MW).

    Bokaro Power Supply Company Pvt. Limited (BPSCL): This 50:50 joint venture between SAIL and the Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC) is managing the 302-MW power generating station and 660 tonnes per hour steam generation facilities at Bokaro Steel Plant.

    Junctions Services Limited: A 50:50 joint venture between SAIL and Tata Steel; promotes e-commerce activities in steel and related areas. Its newly added services include e-assets sales, events & conferences, coal sales & logistics, publications, etc.

    SAIL-Bansal Service Centre Limited: A joint venture with BMW Industries Ltd. on 40:60 basis for a service centre at Bokaro with the objective of adding value to steel.

    Bhilai JP Cement Limited: A joint venture company with Jaiprakash Associates Ltd on 26:74 basis to set up a 2.2 million tonne (MT) slag-based cement plant at Bhilai.

    Bokaro JP Cement Limited: Another joint venture company with Jaiprakash Associates Ltd on 26:74 basis to set up a 2.1 MT slag-based cement plant at Bokaro.

    SAIL & MOIL Ferro Alloys (Pvt.) Limited : A joint venture company with Manganese Ore (India) Ltd on 50:50 basis to produce ferro-manganese and silico-manganese required in production of steel.

    S & T Mining Company Pvt. Limited: A 50:50 joint venture company with Tata Steel for joint acquisition & development of mineral deposits; carrying out mining of minerals including exploration, development, mining and beneficiation of identified coking coal blocks.

    International Coal Ventures Private Limited: A joint venture company/SPV promoted by five central PSUs, viz. SAIL, CIL, RINL, NMDC and NTPC (with respectively 28.7%, 28.7%, 14.3%, 14.3% and 14.3% shareholding) aiming to acquire stake in coal mines/blocks/companies overseas for securing coking and thermal coal supplies.

    SAIL SCI Shipping Pvt. Limited: A 50:50 joint venture with Shipping Corporation of India for provision of various shipping and related services to SAIL for importing of coking coal and other bulk materials and other shipping-related business.

    SAIL RITES Bengal Wagon Industry Pvt. Limited: A 50:50 joint venture with RITES to manufacture, sell, market, distribute and export railway wagons, including high-end specialised wagons, wagon prototypes, fabricated components/parts of railway vehicles, rehabilitation of industrial locomotives, etc., for the domestic market.

    SAIL SCL Limited: A 50:50 JV with Government of Kerala where SAIL has management control to revive the existing facilities at Steel Complex Ltd, Calicut and also to set up, develop and manage a TMT rolling mill of 65,000 MT capacity along with balancing facilities and auxilliaries.

    POSCO,Korea: Strategic alliance for cooperation in a wide range of business & commercial interest areas. Pursuant to this, another MoU has been signed for joint venture initiative in the area of (a) manufacture & commercialisation of CRNO; & (b) Exploration of upstream & downstream opportunities in utilising FINEX technology by both the companies

    Kobe Steel Limited (KSL), Japan: To explore by joint feasibility study, the technical & economic feasibility of ITmk3 technology for producing premium grade iron nuggets using iron ore fines and non coking coal.

    Another MoU for collaborating and cooperating for studying the possibility of producing high value products such as (i) products for automobiles, (ii) products for nuclear and ordinary power plants, such as forged material and tubing material, (iii) special alloy steels and bars, and stainless steel tube and/or any other products mutually agreed to between the parties.

    Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd. (RINL): For jointly exploring and developing high grade low silica limestone deposits of Qalhat in the sultanate of Oman for supply to steel plants of SAIL & RINL on a long term basis.


    The training at BOKARO STEEL PLANT was very helpful. It has improved my theoretical concepts of electrical power transmission and distribution , repairing of electrical motors and machines a . Protection of various apparatus was a great thing. Maintenance of transformer, induction motor, synchronous motors, turbo-generators, boilers, turbines etc was observable.

    I had a chance to see the blast furnance and steel melting shop where the main working of steel plant is being done and also I saw the working of various shops of the plant , which was very interesting. So the training was more than hope to me and helped me to understand about power system more.

  2. #2
    Fuchcha FaaDoO Engineer
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    City : Jaipur

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    Re: Summer training at bokaro steel plant

    how to get into the training...what is the training procedure of the company

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