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Wireless ad hoc network is a collection of autonomous nodes or terminals that communicate with each other by forming a multihop radio network and maintaining connectivity in a decentralized manner. Since the nodes communicate over wireless links, they have to contend with the effects of radio communication, such as noise, fading, and interference. In addition, the links typically have less bandwidth than in a wired network. Each node in a wireless ad hoc network functions as both a host and a router, and the control of the network is distributed among the nodes. The network topology is in general dynamic, because the connectivity among the nodes may vary with time due to node departures, new node arrivals, and the possibility of having mobile nodes. Hence, there is a need for efficient routing protocols to allow the nodes to communicate over multihop paths consisting of possibly several links in a way that does not use any more of the network "resources" than necessary.
TYPES OF AD HOC NETWORKS
There are two major types of wireless ad hoc networks:
a) Mobile Ad hoc Networks
b) Smart Sensor Networks
Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs)
In the next generation of wireless communication systems, there will be a need for the rapid deployment of independent mobile users. Significant examples include establishing survivable, efficient, dynamic communication for emergency or rescue operations, disaster relief efforts, and military networks. Such network scenarios cannot rely on centralized and organized connectivity, and can be conceived as applications of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks. A MANET is an autonomous collection of mobile users that communicate over relatively bandwidth constrained wireless links. Since the nodes are mobile, the network topology may change rapidly and unpredictably over time. The network is decentralized, where all network activity including discovering the topology and delivering messages must be executed by the nodes themselves, i.e., routing functionality will be incorporated into mobile nodes.
Figure 1. Cellular Network vs. Ad Hoc Network
The set of applications for MANETs is diverse, ranging from small, static networks that are constrained by power sources, to large-scale, mobile, highly dynamic networks. The design of network protocols for these networks is a complex issue. Regardless of the application, MANETs need efficient distributed algorithms to determine network organization, link scheduling, and routing. However, determining viable routing paths and delivering messages in a decentralized environment where network topology fluctuates is not a well defined problem. While the shortest path (based on a given cost function) from a source to a destination in a static network is usually the optimal route, this idea is not easily extended to MANETs. Factors such as variable wireless link quality, propagation path loss, fading, multiuser interference, power expended, and topological changes, become relevant issues.
The network should be able to adaptively alter the routing paths to alleviate any of these effects. Moreover, in a military environment, preservation of security, latency, reliability, intentional jamming, and recovery from failure are significant concerns. Military networks are designed to maintain a low probability of intercept and/or a low probability of detection. Hence, nodes prefer to radiate as little power as necessary and transmit as infrequently as possible, thus decreasing the probability of detection or interception. A lapse in any of these requirements may degrade the performance and dependability of the network.
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