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A modem ( modulator-demodulator ) is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal to encode digital information , and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode thetransmitted information. The goal is to produce a signal that can be transmitted easily and decoded to reproduce the original digital data. Modems can be used over any means of transmitting analog signals, from light emitting diodes to radio . The most familiar example is a voice band modem that turns the digital data of a personal computer into modulated electrical signals in the voice frequency range of a telephone channel. These signals can be transmitted over telephone lines and demodulated by another modem at the receiver sideto recover the digital data.Modems are generally classified by the amount ofdata they can send in a given unit of time , usually expressed in bits per second (bit/s, or bps), or bytes per second (B/s). Modems can alternatively be classified by their symbol rate , measured in baud . The baud unit denotes symbols per second, or the number of times per second the modem sends a new signal. For example, the ITU V.21 standard used audio frequency shift keying , that is to say, tones of different frequencies, with two possible frequencies corresponding to two distinct symbols (or one bitper symbol), to carry 300 bits per second using 300 baud. By contrast, the original ITU V.22 standard, which was able to transmitand receive four distinct symbols (two bits per symbol), handled 1,200 bit/s by sending 600 symbols per second (600 baud) using phase shift keying .News wire services in 1920s used multiplex equipment that met the definition, but the modem function was incidental to the multiplexing function, so they are not commonly included in the history of modems.Modems grew out of the need to connect teleprinters over ordinary phone lines instead of more expensive leased lines which had previously been used for current loop –based teleprinters and automated telegraphs . In 1943, IBM adapted this technology to their unit record equipment and were able to transmit punched cards at 25 bits/second. [ citation needed ]Mass-produced modems in the United States began as part of the SAGE air-defensesystem in 1958, connectingterminals at various airbases, radar sites, and command-and-control centers to the SAGE directorcenters scattered around the U.S. and Canada . SAGE modems were described by AT&T's Bell Labs as conforming to their newly published Bell 101 dataset standard. While they ran on dedicated telephone lines, the devices at each end were no different fromcommercial acoustically coupled Bell 101, 110 baudmodems.In the summer of 1960 [ citation needed ] , the name Data-Phone was introduced to replace the earlier term digital subset . The 202 Data-Phone was a half-duplex asynchronous service that was marketed extensively in late 1960 [ citation needed ] . In 1962 [ citation needed ] , the 201A and 201B Data-Phones were introduced. They were synchronous modems using two-bit-per-baud phase-shift keying (PSK). The 201A operated half-duplex at 2,000 bit/s over normal phone lines, while the 201B provided full duplex 2,400 bit/s service on four-wire leased lines, the send and receive channels running on their own set of two wires each.The famous Bell 103A dataset standard was also introduced by AT&T in 1962. It provided full-duplex service at 300 bit/s over normal phone lines. Frequency-shift keying was used with the call originator transmittingat 1,070 or 1,270 Hz and the answering modem transmitting at 2,025 or 2,225 Hz. The readily available 103A2 gave an important boost to the useof remote low-speed terminals such as the KSR33, the ASR33 , and the IBM 2741 . AT&T reduced modem costs by introducing the originate-only 113D and the answer-only 113B/C modems.