This project describes on the causes of foundation damage due to black cotton soil and its retrofitting. For that various types of foundations use to support the structure. In Civil / Structural Engineering projects foundation is like the roots of a tree without which the tree cannot stand. When the foundation put on sub-soil that sub-soil consists of rock or soil, among Civil, Structural & Architectural Engineer face the problems in foundation due to sub-soil. In sub-soil these types of calamities like expansive soils, earthquake, rots, uneven loading, insects, erosion, moisture, and settlement, Frost heave/adfreezing, and Alum Shale crate problem to the foundation. Structural foundation damages due to these types of collapse. If foundation construct on expansive soils (black cotton soil) subjected to moistures. Due to this black cotton soil have different behavior of wetting & drying, they cause minor to major structural damages to the foundation as well as buildings. If foundation cast on black cotton soil (problematic sub-strata) then settlement, heave is occurred and it leads to failure of foundation. For that we discuss methods of construction techniques and inspection, and considerations for remedial repair (retrofitting) of damaged structures.