1. Data Definition The DBMS provides functions to define the structure of the data in the application. These include defining and modifying the record structure, the type and size of fields and the various constraints/conditions to be satisfied by the data in each field. 2. Data Manipulation Once the data structure is defined, data needs to be inserted, modified or deleted. The functions which perform these operations are also part of the DBMS. These function can handle planned and unplanned data manipulation needs. Planned queries are those which form part of the application. Unplanned queries are ad-hoc queries which are performed on a need basis.