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In the beginning, of course, there were no GIS “experts” and nobody specifically set out to develop a new body of technology nor a new scientific discipline for that matter. It would be nice to point to a date, a place, an individual and say, “That’s where it all started, that’s the father of GIS.” But no. As Coppock and Rhind put it in their article on the History of GIS (1991), ”unhappily, we scarcely know.” In the mid-1960s, there were professionals from a range of disciplines, not many and mostly in North America, who were excited by the prospect of handling spatial data digitally. There were three main focal points: the Harvard Graduate School of Design, the Canada Land Inventory, and the U.S. Census Bureau.