It will not have been lost on the readers that GIS receive their roots in technology because they are commonly thought of as tools for handling and studying spatial data. We also observed how GIS have become bound up in geocomputation and how this opens up exciting new vistas for research and application. So are GIS just toolboxes for “turning the handle” on spatial data—shove some data in at one end and churn out some maps at the other? Or is there something more to it that merits the title of “Science” that creates a discipline in its own right? This is not just idle academic musing, but has implications for those numerous disciplines where GIS are applied.