Small Hydro Power Project may be used as one of the option for achieving the energy targets in developing country like India where center or state Governments have limited financial resources to put inlarge projects which require long gestation period. One additional advantage with the Small Hydro PowerProject is that private partners may get attracted due to low investment and quicker return in comparisonto large projects. The last but not least is the most eco friendliness of small power projects which is a pointof serious concern in case of thermal, or nuclear or some times in big Hydro power projects dependingupon the location of the projects. Small Hydro Power potential in India is still under utilized and there isneed to tap this potential for optimum utilization of natural resources. In Madhya Pradesh, Small hydroplants are not many, however there is good scope for developing such plants. Tawa is one of such plants inMP, which has been developed as canal head powerhouse on the left bank canal(LBC) of Tawa irrigationproject by a private investor. This plant is working in a very efficient manner addressing both the powerand irrigation aspects successfully. This example will attract the private investments in small hydropowersector in the developing countries like India.
Hydropower is a renewable, non-polluting and environment friendly source of energy. It is perhaps theoldest energytechnique known to mankind for conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy.Hydropower represents use of water resources towards inflation free energy due to absence of fuel cost.Hydropower contributes around 22 % of the world electricity supply generated. The total potential of smallHydropower of the whole world is 780,000 MW out of which 50,000 MW has already been utilized.Small Hydro is also the highest density resources in generation of electricity due to the reason of being itenvironment friendly, flexibility in operation and suitability in giving support in peak time to the local grid.Due to the small gestation period, small capital investment and quicker return involved, in recent years ithas become the point of attraction for private sector. Fiscal incentive announced by the central and stateGovernments time to time for investment in this sector have further caused private investor to give attentionto this sector.
Small hydro power plants (SHP) provide maximum benefits in minimum time. And offers the most fastesteconomical means to enhance power supply, improve living standards, stimulate industrial growth andenhance agriculture with the least environmental impact and without heavy transmission losses .Due to lesstransmission losses there is a reduction in distribution cost as well. Its availability at the head of theirrigation canals and small streams is also a one of the added advantage of it.
Small Hydro Development in India
India has a rich history of small Hydro power Development. The first hydro power plant was set up in theyear 1897 with a capacity of 130 KW in Darjeeling district. After independence due to increase in powerrequirement the thrust shifted from small Hydropower to large size Hydro and thermal project.After opening of our economy and envisaging an aspire growth rate of 7-8 %, the need of energy at lowcost has been felt much. Here it would be desirable to clarify that India is a developing country, whichcannot afford to invest huge amount of money in only large projects with long gestation period, and henceit was felt more reasonable also to go for small Hydropower project with participation of private sector.Further the small gestation period and its ability to cater local grid need, with minimum transmission lossesreinforced the idea for going towards small Hydro Power projects. It was felt by the ministry of power thatout of total power of the grid to be installed, 2 % should come from small Hydro Power and if this istranslated into reality then by 2012 there will be an addition of 2000 MW capacity from small hydro power.India has a potential of 15000 MW.To tap this potential 4404 potential sites with an aggregate capacity of10477 MW have already been identified. The installed capacity of SHP project as on 31/03/2006 is 1826MW from 556 projects. In addition 203 SHP projects with an aggregate capacity of 468 MW are undercompletion. The growth of capacity addition from small Hydro Projects during last few years is on anaverage 100 MW per year.
Small Hydropower Sector in Madhya Pradesh
The estimated potential for generation from Small Hydro-power Projects (SHPs) is 15000 MW in India, outof which in undivided MP, estimated potentialis 410 MW. Despite various promotional schemes andmeasures announce by Govt of MP, It could set up only 41 MW of SHPs which is only 2.2% of National installed capacity of 1826 MW. As GOI aims to provide 10% of gross power generation in the countrythrough Non conventional energy sources by the year 2012. Therefore MP state has to travel very longdistance and sincere efforts needs to be made, specially to make up the deficit in the small hydropowersector.
Taw project is an irrigation project located on River Tawa a tributary of Narmada River .The River Tawa,which is one of major tributaries of River Narmada, rises from the Satpura range of hills at an elevation of2500 ft. (762.00m).The head works comprises earthen dam of average height 22.528m and masonry Dam of 57.912m heightswith central masonry spillway. 13 Nos. radial gates each of size 15.24mx12.192m are provided withspillway crest at a R.L. 343.205. The M.W.L. of the Dam is 356.692m.The right bank canal has a cultural command area of 98079 ha and an annual irrigation of 75878 ha.(Kharif,Rabi and Summer crops) The Left Bank irrigation canal has cultural command area 1,86,162 ha and anannual irrigation area of 2,56,904ha ( kharif, Rabi, and Summer crops)
Hydro-Electric Plant
Small hydropower plant was setup on left Bank to utilize the tailrace water for irrigation purpose. Thetailrace channel from the powerhouse leads to L.B.C. The two units of 2x6.75 MW were setup by M/sHEG Ltd. Mandideep. The Power production in this plant was started in the year 1998. During Kharif andRabi season the water is supplied through powerhouse tailrace channel to command area for irrigation.
Highlights of Project

  • The Construction of the project was completed in record time of 22 months and at a cost ofaround 65 crores against the estimated time of 40 months and Rs 75 crore estimated cost.
  • Early and efficient completion made possible by RSWI, Canada. (Joint Venture Company of Indiaand Canada)
  • Optimal scheduling and Project monitoring.
  • Low on Capital cost and efficient in generation .

Technical Highlights

  • Canal head project.
  • Catchments area spreads over approximately 6000 Sq Km.
  • Full reservoir level (FRL) 335.397 m.
  • Head range 7 to 21 m and discharge varying from 25 to54 Cumecs.
  • Two turbo generators 6.75 Mw Rated Capacity ( 20% Over load)
  • 2.4 Machinery and Equipment Vertical.

Machinery and Equipment

  • Vertical Shaft Kaplan Turbines and its auxiliaries.
  • 11KV Semi umbrella synchronous generator ad auxiliaries
  • 33 KV vacuum Circuit Breakers.
  • 1 MW 33 k v / 415 v auxiliary transformer.
  • Fire protection system.
  • Fire protection system.
  • Fire protection system.

Instrumentation and Control Systems

  • Tawa unit is provided with centralised automatic instrumentation and control system.
  • The operations of the unit is performed from the Operator console of the Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system provided in the control room.
  • The instrumentation and control system provides control over the entire power plan that includes starting, smooth running and stopping from the central control room.
  • Transducers / transmitters and other instruments are provided on various equipments of power house for generating analog and digital signals to meet the requirements of PLC system.

  • Power Generation details from M/S HEG Ltd. TawaHydro electric plantTawa Nagar.