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Chapter 1 Fundamental Concepts and Definitions 1
1.1 Introduction and definition of thermodynamics 1
1.2 Dimensions and units 1
1.3 Concept of continuum 3
1.4 Systems, surroundings and universe 4
1.5 Properties and state 5
1.6 Thermodynamic path, process and cycle 5
1.7 Thermodynamic equilibrium 6
1.8 Reversibility and irreversibility 7
1.9 Quasi-static process 7
1.10 Some thermodynamic properties 8
1.11 Energy and its forms 11
1.12 Heat and work 13
1.13 Gas laws 14
1.14 Ideal gas 14
1.15 Dalton’s law, Amagat’s law and property of mixture of gases 15
1.16 Real gas 17
1.17 Vander Waals and other equations of state for real gas 20
Examples 22
Exercises 38
Chapter 2 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 40
2.1 Introduction 40
2.2 Principle of temperature measurement and Zeroth law of thermodynamics 40
2.3 Temperature scales 42
2.4 Temperature measurement 43
Examples 46
Exercises 49
Chapter 3 First Law of Thermodynamics 50
3.1 Introduction 50
3.2 Thermodynamic processes and calculation of work 50
3.3 Non-flow work and flow work 57
3.4 First law of thermodynamics 59
3.5 Internal energy and enthalpy 62
3.6 Specific heats and their relation with internal energy and enthalpy 63
3.7 First law of thermodynamics applied to open systems 64
3.8 Steady flow systems and their analysis 65
3.9 First law applied to engineering systems 68
3.10 Unsteady flow systems and their analysis 73
3.11 Limitations of first law of thermodynamics 75
Examples 76
Exercises 94
Chapter 4 Second Law of Thermodynamics 97
4.1 Introduction 97
4.2 Heat reservoir 97
4.3 Heat engine 97
4.4 Heat pump and refrigerator 99
4.5 Statements for IInd law of thermodynamics 100
4.6 Equivalence of Kelvin-Planck and Clausius statements of IInd law of
thermodynamics 101
4.7 Reversible and irreversible processes 103
4.8 Carnot cycle and Carnot engine 105
4.9 Carnot theorem and its corollaries 108
4.10 Thermodynamic temperature scale 109
Examples 113
Exercises 128
Chapter 5 Entropy 131
5.1 Introduction 131
5.2 Clausius inequality 131
5.3 Entropy – A property of system 134
5.4 Principle of entropy increase 138
5.5 Entropy change during different thermodynamic processes 140
5.6 Entropy and its relevance 144
5.7 Thermodynamic property relationship 144
5.8 Third law of thermodynamics 146
Examples 146
Exercises 161
Chapter 6 Thermodynamic Properties of Pure Substance 164
6.1 Introduction 164
6.2 Properties and important definitions 164
6.3 Phase transformation process 166
6.4 Graphical representation of pressure, volume and temperature 167
6.5 Thermodynamic relations involving entropy 170
6.6 Properties of steam 172
6.7 Steam tables and mollier diagram 175
6.8 Dryness fraction measurement 177
Examples 181
Exercises 199
(x)
Chapter 7 Availability and General Thermodynamic Relations 202
7.1 Introduction 202
7.2 Availability or exergy 203
7.3 Availability associated with heat and work 207
7.4 Effectiveness or second law efficiency 210
7.5 Second law analysis of steady flow systems 211
7.6 General thermodynamic relations 213
Examples 230
Exercises 248
Chapter 8 Vapour Power Cycles 250
8.1 Introduction 250
8.2 Performance parameters 250
8.3 Carnot vapour power cycle 251
8.4 Rankine cycle 253
8.5 Desired thermodynamic properties of working fluid 255
8.6 Parametric analysis for performance improvement in Rankine cycle 256
8.7 Reheat cycle 258
8.8 Regenerative cycle 260
8.9 Binary vapour cycle 268
8.10 Combined Cycle 270
8.11 Combined Heat and Power 272
8.12 Different steam turbine arrangements 273
Examples 273
Exercises 327
Chapter 9 Gas Power Cycles 330
9.1 Introduction 330
9.2 Air-standard cycles 330
9.3 Brayton cycle 340
9.4 Regenerative gas turbine cycle 345
9.5 Reheat gas turbine cycle 347
9.6 Gas turbine cycle with intercooling 351
9.7 Gas turbine cycle with reheat and regeneration 353
9.8 Gas turbine cycle with reheat and intercooling 354
9.9 Gas turbine cycle with regeneration, reheat and intercooling 355
9.10 Gas turbine irreversibilites and losses 355
9.11 Compressor and turbine efficiencies 358
9.12 Ericsson cycle 362
9.13 Stirling cycle 364
Examples 365
Exercises 396
Chapter 10 Fuel and Combustion 399
10.1 Introduction 399
10.2 Types of fuels 401
10.3 Calorific value of fuel 402
(xi)
10.4 Bomb calorimeter 402
10.5 Gas calorimeter 404
10.6 Combustion of fuel 404
10.7 Combustion analysis 407
10.8 Determination of air requirement 409
10.9 Flue gas analysis 411
10.10 Fuel cells 413
Examples 413
Exercises 434
Chapter 11 Boilers and Boiler Calculations 436
11.1 Introduction 436
11.2 Types of boilers 437
11.3 Requirements of a good boiler 438
11.4 Fire tube and water tube boilers 438
11.5 Simple vertical boiler 442
11.6 Cochran boiler 443
11.7 Lancashire boiler 444
11.8 Cornish boiler 446
11.9 Locomotive boilers 446
11.10 Nestler boilers 448
11.11 Babcock and Wilcox boiler 448
11.12 Stirling boiler 449
11.13 High pressure boiler 450
11.14 Benson boiler 451
11.15 Loeffler boiler 452
11.16 Velox boiler 452
11.17 La Mont boiler 453
11.18 Fluidized bed boiler 454
11.19 Waste heat boiler 456
11.20 Boiler mountings and accessories 459
11.21 Boiler draught 467
11.22 Natural draught 467
11.23 Artificial draught 474
11.24 Equivalent evaporation 477
11.25 Boiler efficiency 478
11.26 Heat balance on boiler 478
11.27 Boiler trial 481
Examples 481
Exercises 502
Chapter 12 Steam Engine 506
12.1 Introduction 506
12.2 Classification of steam engines 506
12.3 Working of steam engine 508
12.4 Thermodynamic cycle 515
12.5 Indicator diagram 518
(xii)
12.6 Saturation curve and missing quantity 519
12.7 Heat balance and other performance parameters 521
12.8 Governing of simple steam engines 525
12.9 Compound steam engine 527
12.10 Methods of compounding 527
12.11 Indicator diagram for compound steam engine 530
12.12 Calculations for compound steam engines 531
12.13 Governing of compound steam engine 533
12.14 Uniflow engine 535
Examples 536
Exercises 561
Chapter 13 Nozzles 564
13.1 Introduction 564
13.2 One dimensional steady flow in nozzles 565
13.3 Choked flow 576
13.4 Off design operation of nozzle 577
13.5 Effect of friction on nozzle 580
13.6 Supersaturation phenomenon in steam nozzles 582
13.7 Steam injector 584
Examples 584
Exercises 608
Chapter 14 Steam Turbines 611
14.1 Introduction 611
14.2 Working of steam turbine 612
14.3 Classification of steam turbines 614
14.4 Impulse turbine 619
14.5 Velocity diagram and calculations for impulse turbines 623
14.6 Impulse turbine blade height 632
14.7 Calculations for compounded impulse turbine 634
14.8 Reaction turbines 637
14.9 Losses in steam turbines 644
14.10 Reheat factor 646
14.11 Steam turbine control 649
14.12 Governing of steam turbines 650
14.13 Difference between throttle governing and nozzle control governing 654
14.14 Difference between impulse and reaction turbines 654
Examples 655
Exercises 680
Chapter 15 Steam Condensor 684
15.1 Introduction 684
15.2 Classification of Condenser 685
15.3 Air Leakage 691
15.4 Condenser Performance Measurement 692
15.5 Cooling Tower 693
Examples 695
Exercises 704
(xiii)
Chapter 16 Reciprocating and Rotary Compressor 706
16.1 Introduction 706
16.2 Reciprocating compressors 708
16.3 Thermodynamic analysis 709
16.4 Actual indicator diagram 715
16.5 Multistage compression 716
16.6 Control of reciprocating compressors 722
16.7 Reciprocating air motor 722
16.8 Rotary compressors 723
16.9 Centrifugal compressors 728
16.10 Axial flow compressors 732
16.11 Surging and choking 733
16.12 Stalling 735
16.13 Centrifugal compressor characteristics 736
16.14 Axial flow compressor characteristics 739
16.15 Comparative study of compressors 740
Examples 742
Exercises 767
Chapter 17 Introduction to Internal Combustion Engines 770
17.1 Introduction 770
17.2 Classification of IC engines 771
17.3 IC Engine terminology 772
17.4 4-Stroke SI Engine 773
17.5 2-Stroke SI Engine 776
17.6 4-Stroke CI Engine 776
17.7 2-Stroke CI Engine 777
17.8 Thermodynamic cycles in IC engines 778
17.9 Indicator diagram and power measurement 780
17.10 Combustion in SI engine 783
17.11 Combustion in CI engines 785
17.12 IC engine fuels 786
17.13 Morse test 787
17.14 Comparative study of IC engines 788
Examples 790
Exercises 802
Chapter 18 Introduction to Refrigeration and Air Conditioning 805
18.1 Introduction 805
18.2 Performance parameters 807
18.3 Unit of refrigeration 808
18.4 Carnot refrigeration cycles 808
18.5 Air refrigeration cycles 809
18.6 Vapour compression cycles 813
18.7 Multistage vapour compression cycle 819
18.8 Absorption refrigeration cycle 820
(xiv)
18.9 Modified absorption refrigeration cycle 822
18.10 Heat pump systems 823
18.11 Refrigerants 824
18.12 Desired properties of refrigerants 827
18.13 Psychrometry 827
18.14 Air conditioning systems 835
18.15 Comparison of different refrigeration methods 837
Examples 838
Exercises 855
Chapter 19 Jet Propulsion and Rocket Engines 858
19.1 Introduction 858
19.2 Principle of jet propulsion 858
19.3 Classification of jet propulsion engines 860
19.4 Performance of jet propulsion engines 861
19.5 Turbojet engine 863
19.6 Turbofan engine 867
19.7 Turboprop engine 868
19.8 Turbojet engine with afterburner 868
19.9 Ramjet engine 869
19.10 Pulse jet engine 870
19.11 Principle of rocket propulsion 871
19.12 Rocket engine 872
19.13 Solid propellant rocket engines 872
19.14 Liquid propellant rocket engines 873
Examples 873
Exercises 891
Multiple Answer Type Questions 892
Appendix 917
Table 1 : Ideal gas specific heats of various common gases at 300 K 917
Table 2 : Saturated steam (temperature) table 917
Table 3 : Saturated steam (pressure) table 919
Table 4 : Superheated steam table 921
Table 5 : Compressed liquid water table 927
Table 6 : Saturated ice-steam (temperature) table 928
Table 7 : Critical point data for some substances 929
Table 8 : Saturated ammonia table 930
Table 9 : Superheated ammonia table 931
Table 10 : Saturated Freon – 12 table 933
Table 11 : Superheated Freon – 12 table 934
Table 12 : Enthalpies of Formation, Gibbs Function of Formation, and Absolute
Entropy at 25°C and 1 atm Pressure 937
Chart 1 : Psychrometric chart 938
Chart 2 : Mollier diagram 939
Index 941