LOTO NOTES

OVER VIEW

Workers performing service or maintenance on machinery and equipment may be exposed to injuries from the unexpected energization, startup of the machinery or equipment, or release of stored energy in the equipment.
Who does this loto apply to?
  • General Industry workers performing servicing and/or maintenance on machines or equipment and who are exposed to the unexpected energization, startup, or release of hazardous energy. Under the standard, the term "unexpected" also covers situations in which the servicing and/or maintenance is performed during ongoing normal production operations if:
    • An employee is required to remove or bypass machine guards or other safety devices or
    • An employee is required to place any part of his or her body into a point of operation or into an area on a machine or piece of equipment where work is performed, or into the danger zone associated with the machine's operation.
What activities or operations are covered?
  • Any servicing and/or maintenance of machines or equipment when the source of energy to the machines or equipment is electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, thermal, or other energy.
    Definition of energy source

  • Constructing, installing, setting up, adjusting, inspecting, modifying, maintaining and/or servicing machines or equipment, including lubrication, cleaning or unjamming of machines or equipment, and making adjustments or tool changes, where employees could be exposed to the unexpected energization or startup of the equipment or release of hazardous energy.
    Definition of servicing and /or maintenance
Who does this standard not apply to?
  • General Industry workers performing servicing and maintenance on machines or equipment who are NOT exposed to the unexpected energization or startup of the machines or equipment, or the release of hazardous energy.
What activities and operations are not covered?
  • Servicing and/or maintenance of equipment performed during normal production operations if:
    • The safeguarding provisions of Subpart O, and other applicable general industry standards are effective in preventing worker exposure to hazards created by the unexpected energization or startup of machines or equipment, or the release of energy.

  • Minor tool changes and adjustments, and other minor servicing activities that take place during normal production operations which are routine, repetitive, and integral to the use of that production equipment, as long as workers are effectively protected by alternative measures which provide effective machine safeguarding protection

  • Construction, agriculture, and maritime employment.

  • Installations under the exclusive control of electric utilities for power generation, transmission, and distribution.

  • Exposure to electrical hazards from work on, near, or with conductors or equipment in electric utilization installations.

  • Oil and gas well drilling and servicing.

  • Work on cord and plug connected electrical equipment, if:
    • The equipment is unplugged from the energy source and the authorized employee has exclusive control of the plug.

  • Hot tap operations that involve transmission and distribution systems for gas, steam, water, or petroleum products on pressurized pipelines, if:
    • Continuity of service is essential, shutdown of the system is impractical, documented procedures are followed, and employees are effectively protected
What is the purpose of the standard?
  • To prevent injury to servicing and/or maintenance employees due to the unexpected energization or startup of machines and equipment, or release of stored energy.
How is this accomplished?
  • Employers must establish an energy control program, consisting of energy control procedures, employee training, and periodic inspections to ensure that before service and maintenance is performed, machines and equipment that could unexpectedly startup, become energized, or release stored energy, are isolated from their energy source(s) and rendered safe.
DEFINATIONS:-

  • Authorized employee: An employee who locks or tags machines or equipment in order to perform servicing or maintenance.
  • Affected employee: An employee who is required to use machines or equipment on which servicing is performed under the Lockout/Tagout standard or who performs other job responsibilities in an area where such servicing is performed.
  • Other employees: All employees who are or may be in an area where energy control procedures may be utilized.
  • Capable of being locked out: An energy-isolating device is considered capable of being locked out if it:
    • Is designed with a hasp or other means of attachment to which a lock can be affixed.
    • Has a locking mechanism built into it.
    • Can be locked without dismantling, rebuilding, or replacing the energy-isolating device or permanently altering its energy control capability.
  • Energized: Machines and equipment are energized when they are connected to an energy source or they contain residual or stored energy.
  • Energy-isolating device: A mechanical device that physically prevents the transmission or release of energy, including but not limited to the following: A manually operated electrical circuit breaker; a disconnect switch; a manually operated switch by which the conductors of a circuit can be disconnected from all ungrounded supply conductors and, in addition, no pole can be operated independently; a line valve; a block; and any similar device used to block or isolate energy. Push buttons, selector switches and other control circuit type devices are not energy isolating devices.
  • Energy source: Any source of electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, thermal, or other energy.
  • Lockout: The placement of a lockout device on an energy-isolating device, in accordance with an established procedure, ensuring that the energy-isolating device and the equipment being controlled cannot be operated until the lockout device is removed.
  • Lockout device: Any device that uses positive means, such as a lock, blank flanges and bolted slip blinds, to hold an energy-isolating device in a safe position, thereby preventing the energizing of machinery or equipment.
  • Normal production operations: Utilization of a machine or equipment to perform its intended production function.
  • Servicing and/or maintenance: Workplace activities such as constructing, installing, setting up, adjusting, inspecting, modifying, maintaining and/or servicing machines or equipment, including lubrication, cleaning or unjamming of machines or equipment, and making adjustments or tool changes, where employees could be exposed to the unexpected energization or startup of the equipment or release of hazardous energy.
  • Tagout: The placement of a tagout device on an energy-isolating device, in accordance with an established procedure, to indicate that the energy-isolating device and the equipment being controlled may not be operated until the tagout device is removed.
  • Tagout device: Any prominent warning device, such as a tag and a means of attachment that can be securely fastened to an energy-isolating device to indicate that the machine or equipment to which it is attached may not be operated until the tagout device is removed.

ENERGY CONTROL PROGRAMME
What are the core components of the energy control program?
The energy control program has three core components: energy control procedures, employee training, and periodic inspections.
  • Energy control procedures detail and document the specific information that an authorized employee must know to accomplish lockout/tagout, namely, the scope, purpose, authorization rules and techniques to be utilized for the control of hazardous energy.

  • Periodic inspections of the energy control procedures ensure that the procedures and the requirements of the standard are being followed.

  • Employee training and retraining, along with additional training under a tagout system, ensures that the purpose and function of the energy control programs are understood by the employer.

  • What is the intent of the energy control program?
oTo ensure that before any employee services equipment where the potential exists for unexpected energization or start-up of equipment or the release of stored energy, the machine or equipment is isolated from the energy source and rendered inoperative.
Does the employer have the flexibility to develop his/her own program?
Yes. Employers are expected to develop programs and procedures, training and inspections, that meet the needs of their particular workplace and the particular types of machines and equipment they use and service as long as they meet the requirements of the standard
PROCEDURE & DOCUMENT
What is the employer's obligation in establishing energy control procedures?
Employers must develop, document, and use specific procedures to control potentially hazardous energy when employees are servicing equipment or machinery.


Under what limited situations is documentation of the procedures not required? (NOTE(Exception
  • The machine or equipment has no potential for stored or residual energy, or for reaccumulation of stored energy after shut down, which could endanger employees.

  • The machine or equipment has a single energy source that can be readily identified and isolated and the isolation and locking out of that energy source will completely deenergize and deactivate the machine or equipment.

  • The machine or equipment is isolated from that energy source and locked out during servicing or maintenance.

  • A single lockout device will achieve a locked-out condition.

  • The lockout device is under the exclusive control of the authorized employee performing the servicing or maintenance.

  • The servicing or maintenance does not create hazards for other employees.

  • The employer has had no accidents involving the unexpected activation or reenergization of machines or equipment during servicing or maintenance.
APPLICATION OF THE ENERGY CONTROL

To safely apply energy control to machines or equipment (using either lockout or tagout devices), authorized employees must perform certain procedures, in a specific order. What are the sequential procedures?
  • Preparation for shutdown: Before an authorized or affected employee turns off a machine or equipment, the authorized employee must have knowledge of the type and magnitude of the energy, the hazards of the energy to be controlled, and the method or means to control the energy.

  • Machine or equipment shutdown: The machine or equipment must be turned off or shut down using the procedures established for it to avoid any additional or increased hazards to employees as a result of the machine or equipment stoppage.

  • Machine or equipment isolation: All energy-isolating devices that are needed to control the machine's energy source must be located. These devices must then be used to isolate the machine or equipment from its energy source(s).

  • Lockout or tagout device application: Lockout or tagout devices must be affixed to each energy-isolating device by authorized employees. Lockout devices where used, must be affixed in a manner that will hold the energy isolating devices in a "safe" or "off" position. Where tagout devices are used, it must be affixed in a manner that will clearly indicate that the operation or movement of energy isolating devices from the "safe" or "off" position is prohibited. If the tag can not be affixed directly to the energy isolating device, the tag must be located as close as safely possible to the device, in a position that will be immediately obvious to anyone attempting to operate the device.

  • Stored energy: After the energy-isolating device has been locked out or tagged out, all potentially hazardous stored or residual energy must be relieved, disconnected, restrained, and otherwise rendered safe.

  • Verification of isolation: Before any work begins on machines or equipment that have been locked out or tagged out, an authorized employee must verify that the machine or equipment has been properly isolated and deenergized.


RELEASE FROM LOCKOUT/TAGOUT



The Lockout/Tagout standard includes requirements for releasing machines or equipment that have been locked out or tagged out prior to restoring energy to the equipment and using it. Before lockout or tagout devices are removed, and energy restored, what procedures must the authorized employee follow?
  • Machine/equipment inspection: The work area must be inspected to ensure that nonessential items (e.g., tools, spare parts) have been removed and that all of the machine or equipment components are operationally intact

  • Positioning of employees: The work area must be checked to ensure that all employees have been safely positioned or have cleared the area. In addition, all affected employees must be notified that the lockout or tagout devices have been removed before the equipment is started.

  • Lockout or tagout device removal: Each lockout or tagout device must be removed from the energy-isolating device by the employee who applied the device.
What is the unique circumstance that allows an employee other than the one who applied the lockout/tagout device to remove the device?
When the authorized employee who applied the lockout or tagout device is not available to remove it, that device may be removed under the direction of the employer, provided that specific procedures and training for such removal have been developed, documented, and incorporated into the employer's energy control program. Exception
What steps must the employer take if an employee, other than the one who applied the lockout/tagout device, removes the device?
  • The employer must verify that the authorized employee who applied the device is not at the facility.

  • The employer must make all reasonable efforts to contact the authorized employee to inform him/her that his/her lockout or tagout device has been removed.

  • The employer must ensure that the authorized employee knows that the lockout device has been removed before he/she resumes work at the facility.

SHIFT CHANGE
How is the continuity of lockout or tagout protection maintained during shift or personnel changes?
  • Employers must ensure the continuity of employee protection by providing for the orderly transfer of lockout or tagout device protection between off-going and incoming employees. This will help to minimize exposure to hazards from the unexpected energization or start-up of the machine or equipment or the release of stored energy.
(The Appendix to 1910.147 offers non-mandatory guidelines to help employers and employees in complying with the requirements of this section, as well as to provide other helpful information.)
GROUP LOTO
Can servicing or maintenance be performed by a crew, department, or other group under this standard?
Yes. If they have been properly trained and the energy control program is followed.


What procedures must be followed that, when a group is performing servicing and/or maintenance, will offer group employees the same protection that the standard provides to individual employees?
  • Protection must be utilized which affords the employees a level of protection equivalent to that provided by the implementation of a personal lockout or tagout device.

  • Primary responsibility for a set number of employees working under the protection of a group lockout or tagout device must be vested in a single authorized employee.

  • The single authorized employee must determine the exposure status of individual group members

  • If there will be more than one crew, department, or group involved in the activity, a single authorized employee must be designated to coordinate affected workforces and to ensure continuity of protection

  • Each authorized employee must affix a personal lockout or tagout device as required in the standard when work begins and remove it when work is completed
APPLICATION OF ENERGY CONTROL
To safely apply energy control to machines or equipment (using either lockout or tagout devices), authorized employees must perform certain procedures, in a specific order. What are the sequential procedures?
  • Preparation for shutdown: Before an authorized or affected employee turns off a machine or equipment, the authorized employee must have knowledge of the type and magnitude of the energy, the hazards of the energy to be controlled, and the method or means to control the energy.

  • Machine or equipment shutdown: The machine or equipment must be turned off or shut down using the procedures established for it to avoid any additional or increased hazards to employees as a result of the machine or equipment stoppage.

  • Machine or equipment isolation: All energy-isolating devices that are needed to control the machine's energy source must be located. These devices must then be used to isolate the machine or equipment from its
  • Energy source(s).

  • Lockout or tagout device application: Lockout or tagout devices must be affixed to each energy-isolating device by authorized employees. Lockout devices where used, must be affixed in a manner that will hold the energy isolating devices in a "safe" or "off" position. Where tagout devices are used, it must be affixed in a manner that will clearly indicate that the operation or movement of energy isolating devices from the "safe" or "off" position is prohibited. If the tag can not be affixed directly to the energy isolating device, the tag must be located as close as safely possible to the device, in a position that will be immediately obvious to anyone attempting to operate the device.

  • Stored energy: After the energy-isolating device has been locked out or tagged out, all potentially hazardous stored or residual energy must be relieved, disconnected, restrained, and otherwise rendered safe.

  • Verification of isolation: Before any work begins on machines or equipment that have been locked out or tagged out, an authorized employee must verify that the machine or equipment has been properly
isolated and deenergized.