Although the term AUTOMATION is often used to refer to the simple replacement of human labour by machines, generally implies the integration of machines into a self-governing system. Automation has revolutionized those areas in which it has been introduced, and there is scarcely an aspect of modern life that has been unaffected by it.The technology of AUTOMATION has evolved from the related field of mechanization, which had its beginnings in the Industrial Revolution. Mechanization refers to the replacement of human (or animal) power with mechanical power of some form. The driving force behind mechanization has been humankind's propensity to create tools and mechanical devices. Historical developments in mechanization and automation leading to modern automated systems. In manufacturing firms toward the use of computers to perform many of the functions related to design and production is computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM). Computer-aided design (cad) makes use of computer systems to assist in the creation, modification, analysis, and optimization of a design. Computer-aided manufacturing (cam) involves the use of computer systems to assist in the planning, control, and management of production operations. In daily life applications of automation technology, there have been significant achievements in areas such as communications, transportation, service industries, and consumer products. Some of the more significant applications are described in this section. Advantages Higher production rates and increased productivity, More efficient use of materials, Better product quality, improved safety, Reduced factory lead times. Although the term AUTOMATION is often used to refer to the simple replacement of human labour by machines, generally implies the integration of machines into a self-governing system. Automation has revolutionized those areas in which it has been introduced, and there is scarcely an aspect of modern life that has been unaffected by it.The technology of AUTOMATION has evolved from the related field of mechanization, which had its beginnings in the Industrial Revolution. Mechanization refers to the replacement of human (or animal) power with mechanical power of some form. The driving force behind mechanization has been humankind's propensity to create tools and mechanical devices. Historical developments in mechanization and automation leading to modern automated systems. In manufacturing firms toward the use of computers to perform many of the functions related to design and production is computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM). Computer-aided design (cad) makes use of computer systems to assist in the creation, modification, analysis, and optimization of a design. Computer-aided manufacturing (cam) involves the use of computer systems to assist in the planning, control, and management of production operations. In daily life applications of automation technology, there have been significant achievements in areas such as communications, transportation, service industries, and consumer products. Some of the more significant applications are described in this section. Advantages Higher production rates and increased productivity, More efficient use of materials, Better product quality, improved safety, Reduced factory lead times.