"AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLER OF CAR SPECIFIC REGION WITH RF SIGNAL”





MINOR PROJECT REPORT

Submitted in partial fulfillment for award of degree of

Bachelor of Technology

In

Electronics and Communication

By

Vikrant Verma (0576807312)
Deepak (0676807312)
Atul Rana (0876807312)
Anish Kumar (06776802810)

To

Project Coordinators

Mr. Pawan Kumar Ms. Chanpreet Kaur Mr. Jaijit Singh
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Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering

Guru Tegh Bahadur Institute of Technology, Delhi

Batch: 2011-2015



DECLARATION






This is to certify that the project report entitled “AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLER OF CAR WITH SPECIFIC REGION WITH RF SIGNAL”, which is submitted by us in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of B.Tech degree, in Electronics and Communication to Guru Tegh Bahadur Institute of Technology, Delhi comprises only our original work and due acknowledgement has been made in the test to all other material used.




Date:

GROUP MEMBER NAME:-
Vikrant Verma (0576807312)
Deepak (0676807312)
Atul Rana (0876807312)
Anish Kumar (06776802810)







CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that report entitled AUTOMATIC SPEED CONTROLER OF WITH
SPECIFIC REGION WITH RF SIGNAL”, which is submitted by Vikrant Verma (0576807312), Deepak (0676807312),Atul Rana (0876807312),Anish Kumar (06776802810) in partial fulfillment of the required for the award of B.Tech in Electronics And Communication Engineering to Guru Tegh Bahadur Institute of Technology, New Delhi is a record of the candidates own work carried out by them under my supervision. The matter embodied in this report is original and has not been submitted for the award of any other degree.



Place: New Delhi

Date:





"Mr Gagan " "Shivani duggal"
(Project Mentor) (Project Mentor)
Mr. Pawan Kumar Ms. Chanpreet Kaur Bhasin Mr. Jaijit Singh
(Project Co-ordinator) (Project Co-ordinator) (Project Co-ordinator)
Prof. Amrik Singh Mr. Vaneet Singh
(Overall Project Co-ordinator) (HOD, ECE)








ACKNOWLEDGEMENT




Setting an endeavor may not always be an easy task; obstacles are bound to come in its way and when this happens, help is welcome and needless to say without help of those people whom we are mentioning here, this endeavor would not have been successful. We are very much thankful for the precious contribution of our guides Mr/Ms: Shivani Duggal & Mr. Gagan (both mentors) and our coordinators Mr/Ms : Mr. Pawan Kumar, Ms. Chanpreet Kaur Bhasin, Mr. Jaijit Singh, Prof. Amrik Singh, (all coordinators and overall coordinator) who provided all their possible help. We would also like to thank our H.O.D. Mr. Vaneet Singh for his constant support and encouragement. The successful completion of this project has been possible due to sincere co-operation, guidance and timely advice from all the fore mentioned, who devoted their utmost co-operation in this project work.



(Name of the students…)
Vikrant Verma
Deepak
Atul Rana
Anish Kumar
















LIST OF TABLES

Table of contents
1. Introduction
2. Circuit description
3. Working
4. Hardware description
5. Analog to digital converter
6. Liquid crystal display
7. Power supply
8. Cristal oscillator
9. Working of Transmitter
10. Encoder and decoder
11. RF transmitter and receiver
12. Microcontroller(80S52)
13. The features of Microcontroller
14. Pin function of IC 89s52.
15. Software description
16. Program of the project




Chapter descriptions:

Chapter 1:-
1. Introduction
2. circuit diagram
3. working

Chapter 2:-
Hardware description:-
1. Analog to digital converter
2. Liquid crystal display
3. Power supply
4. Cristal oscillator

Chapter 3:-
1. Working of Transmitter
2. Encoder and decoder
3. RF transmitter and receiver
4. Microcontroller(80S52)
5. The features of Microcontroller
6. Pin function of IC 89s52.
Chapter 4:-
Software description
1. Program of the project
List of Figures Page Numbers

Fig 1: Car Receiver Circuit 12
Fig 2: Transmitter Circuit 13
Fig 3: ADC (Analog to Digital Circuit) 16
Fig 4: Interfacing of LCD with micro Controller 20
Fig 5: LCD Display 21
Fig 6: 7805 Voltage regulated IC. 22
Fig 7: Voltage regulated Circuit 23
Fig 8: Crystal Oscillator 24
Fig 9: Transmitter Circuit 25
Fig 10: Encoder IC 26
Fig 11: Decoder IC 27
Fig 12: TWS-434A 27
Fig 13: TWS-434 Pin 28
Fig 14: Sample Transmitter Application Circuit 28
Fig 15: RWS-434 Receiver 29
Fig 16: RWS-434 Pin Diagram 30
Fig 17: Sample Receiver Application Circuit 30
Fig 18: The 8051 doesn’t have any special feature than other microcontroller. 31
Fig 19: Electric Circuit 32
Fig 20: Interface Microcontroller with motor driver IC 62


ABSTRACT
This project is mainly developed to avoid accidents due to high speed vehicles and also to enable the public to cross the road without any danger from high speed vehicles. Usually the drivers drive the vehicles at high speed without considering the public in speed limited areas too. Even though the traffic police control them we cannot achieve full response from them. Also it is not possible to monitor those areas at all time to regulate their speed. Thus this project paves way for controlling the speed of the vehicles within certain limit in those restricted zones without the interruption of the drivers.
Here we use RF communication method for controlling purpose. In order to implement this in public then we want to attach the RF receiver along with the vehicle and the Transmitter with these Zones. These transmitters are programmed to send the coded signals continuously with certain delay in between. Whenever the vehicles enter into these zones their receivers will receive this code and then the speed of the vehicles is controlled automatically with the help of the micro controller unit present inside the vehicles. Most of the road accidents in India occur due to over speed and rash driving of vehicles on public roads. The rate of accidents has increased as more vehicles come on to ground. To control and monitor the speed of vehicle on public roads the respective departments of government has taken necessary step. But it is not doing enough. Presently the motor vehicle departments have been provided with laser speed detectors. But a man has to be there on road, which is not an ideal way for monitoring. Also the laser tracker is very costly. The thread for this paper was derived from the above mentioned points. Here in this paper, we tried to develop a system to track the speed of the vehicle in a much simpler, economical way. This system has to work 24x7 automatically. The first idea was to use laser module, but finding it costly it was dropped. Later we found out that IR transceivers will help in achieving the goal, which is very simple to construct and very cheap, but it works only if the line of sight is maintained which was the main reason it was dropped. Finally we found that RFID module can fulfill our requirements with its key features as more economic, high reliability etc. In this paper, by using RFID module as its main component, automatic speed control of our vehicle can be achieved. RFID tag is fixed on the different sign boards and RFID reader on the vehicle. When the reader comes in the speed limit area, speed is controlled automatically.
The micro controllers are programmed such as to control the speed of the vehicles whenever it receives such code. The transmitters are placed to transmit these codes up to a certain distance for which the speed should be reduced.
The same code can be used everywhere wherever such zones are there to control the accidents The ultimate aim of this project is to automatically control the speed of the vehicles at speed restricted areas such as school, hospital zone and Domestic zone etc. In this project we show that how we control the speed of any car up to set value. Once the upper limit is set then it’s not possible to increase the speed of vehicle. THIS SET VALUE IS PROVIDED BY RF TRANSMITTER.
RF transmitter sends a set value of code to car, as the car receives a code then car maximum speed limit is set. Now car driver cannot exceed the speed limit. As the car is out of range then car speed can be change.
In this project we use two circuits. One is transmitter and second is receiver circuit. In both circuit we use 89s52 controller. In receiver circuit we use 89s52 with ADC and LCD display. LCD displays the set value of speed and speed of accelerometer. In receiver circuit we use Ht12D as a decoder to receive the Rf frequency signal. In receiver circuit we use 433 MHz receiver and at the transmitter circuit we use 433 MHz transmitter circuit. In transmitter circuit we use HT12e as a encoder components.

With the help of two up down switch we set the limit for 3 values. 20, 30, 40 and 60 is maximum set value. Third switch is entering switch. When we press the enter switch then circuit starts the motor. Vehicle starts moving forward direction.


Chapter 1:-

Introduction
In this project we show that how we control the speed of any car up to set value. Once the upper limit is set then its not possible to increase the speed of vehicle. THIS SET VALUE IS PROVIDED BY RF TRANSMITTER.
Rf transmitter send a set value of code to car, as the car receive a code then car maximum speed limit is set. Now car driver can not exceed the speed limit. As the car is out of range then car speed can be change.

In this project we use two circuits. One is transmitter and second is receiver circuit. In both circuit we use 89s52 controller. In receiver circuit we use 89s52 with ADC and LCD display. LCD displays the set value of speed and speed of accelerometer. In receiver circuit we use Ht12D as a decoder to receive the Rf frequency signal. In receiver circuit we use 433 MHz receiver and at the transmitter circuit we use 433 MHz transmitter circuit. In transmitter circuit we use HT12e as a encoder components.

With the help of two up down switch we set the limit for 3 values. 20,30,40 and 60. is maximum set value. Third switch is enter switch. When we press the enter switch then circuit starts the motor.

For vehicle we use small DC gear motor. When we on the circuit then default value of the motor speed is 20, not we change the setting of maximum speed limit.
Now we use variable resistor to change the value of accelerometer. This variable resistor is connected to the input of ADC circuit. When we vary the variable resistor value then speed of motor is also change.





Circuit diagram:-
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Fig 1: Car Receiver Circuit
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Fig 2: Transmitter Circuit

Chapter 2:-

WORKING
In the project there are two part transmitter and receiver in the transistor when press the micro switches key given some input of microcontroller , the microcontroller check the key input whose key press and what is the data or information sending after this process the microcontroller1 encoded the input by the RE module the receiver the data by RE module and collected by receiver microcontroller and the microcontroller decoding the information signal and display on the seven segment and microcontroller sending the data
in dc Motor, and motors start the receiver part send feedback which data is receives ,sending by the RF module again the transmitter RF module receive feedback information and decoding by microcontroller and display on LCD (liquid crystal display). It’s whole process based on the frequency modulation.

Hardware discription
ADC converts
In this project we use 0804 ADC to check the value of input resistor. This ADC is 8 bit ADC. Output of the ADC is connected to the microcontroller port p1. ADC converts the input voltage and deliver to the microcontroller. Input variable resistor actually varies the 5 volt DC. When we vary the input voltage then ADC converts the input voltage to the Digital voltage. . Output of ADC is hex code, microcontroller coverts the hex data in ASCII code and display into the LCD module. Microcontroller gets the value and save the same in the ram content of the microcontroller. Controller continues vary the output of the DC motor via varying the duty cycle. Controller compares the change with the set value. When input value is become equal to the set value then microcontroller stop to increasing the speed of the DC motor.

BASIC NOTES ON THE ADC.
Analogue to digital converters are among the most widely used devices for data acquisition. Digital computers use binary values, but in the physical world everything is analog. Temperature, pressure ( wind or Liquid), humidity, and velocity are a few examples of physical quantities that we deal with every day. A physical quantity is converted to electrical ( voltage, current) signals using a device called a transducer. Transducers are also referred to as sensors. Although there are sensors for temperature, velocity, pressure, light, and many other natural quantities, they produce an output that is voltage ( or current) . Therefore, we need an analog to digital converter to translate the analog signals to digital numbers so that the microcontroller can read them, A widely used ADC chip is the ADC0804.

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Fig 3: ADC (Analog to Digital Circuit)

ADC0804 CHIP.

The ADC0804 IC is an analog to digital converter in the family of the ADC800 series from National Semiconductor. It is also available from many other manufactures. It works with +5 volts and has a resolution of 8 bits. In addition to resolution, conversion time is another major factor in judging and ADC. Conversion time is defined as the time it takes the ADC to convert the anlog input to a digital number. In the ADC0804, the conversion time varies depending on the clocking signals applied to the CLK R and CLK IN pins, but it cannot be faster then 110 microsecond.




The ADC804 pin description follow.
Chapter 1 CS

Chip select is an active low input used to activate the ADC804 chip. To access the ADC804, this pin must be low.
RD ( read)
This is an input signal and is active low. The ADC converts the analog input to its binary equivalent and holds it in an internal register. RD is used to get the converted data out of the ADC 0804 chip. When CS = 0, if a high to low pulse is applied to the RD pin, the 8 bit digital output shows up at the D0-D7 data pins. The RD pin is also referred to as output enable.


WR( Start conversion)
This is an active low input used to inform the ADC 804 to start the conversion process. If the CS = 0 when WR makes a low to high transition, ADC 804 starts converting the analogue input value of Vin to an 8 bit digital number. The amount of time it takes to convert varies depending on the CLK IN and CLK R values explained below. When the data conversion is complete, the INTR pin is forced low by the ADC804.
CLK IN AND CLK R

CLK IN is an input pin connected to an external clock source when an external clock is used for timing. However, the 804 has an internal clock generator. To use the internal clock generator ( also called self clocking) of the ADC804 the CLK IN and CLKR pins are connected to a capacitor and a resistor, as shown in the fig. In that case the clock frequency is determined by the equation.

F = 1
1.1RC


Typical values are R = 10 k ohms and C = 150pf, Substituting in the above equation, we get f = 606 khz. In that case, the conversion time is 110 microsecond.
INTR ( Interrupt, end of conversion)
This is an output pin and is active low, It is normal high pin and when the conversion is finished, it goes low to signal the CPU that the converted data is ready to be picked up. After INTR goes low, we make CS = 0 and send a high to low pulse to the RD pin to get the data out of the ADC804 chip.

VIN ( + ) AND V in ( -)
These are the differential analog inputs where Vin = Vin(+) – Vin (-) Often the Vin ( -) pin is connected to ground and the Vin ( +) pin is used as the anlogue to be converted to digital.

Vcc

This is the +5 volt power supply. It is also used as a reference voltage when the Vref/2 input ( pin 9) is open ( not connected0.

Vref/2

Pin 9 is an input voltage used for the reference voltage. If the pin is open ( not connected ), the analog input voltage for the ADC804 is in the range of 0 to 5 volts 9 the same as the Vcc pin ). However, there are many applications where the analog input applied to vin needs to be other than the 0 to +5v range. Vref/2 is used to implement analog input voltages other than 0-5volt, For example, if the analog input range needs to be 0 to 4 volts, vref/2 is connected to 2 volts.
D0-D7



D0-DT ( where D7 is the MSB, D0 the LSB ) are the digital data output pins. These are tri-state buffered and the converted data is accessed only when CS = 0 and RD is forced low. To calculate the output voltage, use the following formula

Dout = Vin
step size

Where Dout = digital data output ( in decimal ), Vin = analog input voltage, and step size ( resolution ) is the smallest change, which is ( 2 x Vref/2) / 256 for an 8 bit ADC.
ANALOG GROUND AND DIGITAL GROUND.
These are the input pins providing the ground for both the analog signal and the digital signal. Analog ground is connected to the ground of the analog Vin while digital ground is connected to the ground of the Vcc pin. The reason that we have two ground pins is to isolate the analog Vin signal from transient voltages caused by digital switching of the output D0-d7, such isolation contributes to the accuracy of the digital data output. In our discussion, both are connected to the same ground; however, in the real world of data acquisition the analog and digital grounds and handled separately.




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Fig 4: Interfacing of LCD with micro Controller


PIN NO 1 VSS GROUND

PIN NO 2 VCC +5 V SUPPY.

PIN NO 3 VEE POWER SUPPLY TO CONTRAST CONTROL

PIN NO 4 RS RS = 0 TO SELECT [IMG]file:///C:/Users/SANGEE~1/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image012.jpg[/IMG]
Fig 5: LCD Display

We use 5 volt regulated supply for the LCD display and max 232 ic. For this purpose we use 7805 regulator with filter capacitor to provide a ripple free regulated voltage to controller and lcd display.
We use MAX232 driver ic to provide a interface between GSM modem and controller. MAX 232 IC convert the rs232 logic to TTL logic. Output of the max 232 is directly connected to the RX pin of the controller.
Pin no 18 and 19 of the microcontroller is connected to external crystal oscillator to provide a external clock to microcontroller by which we set the machine cycle of the controller
POWER SUPPLY
in this project we use one 5 volt regulated power supply to convert the 220 volt ac in to 5 volt dc with the help of the 5 volt regulator circuit. First OF all we step down the 220 volt ac into 6 volt ac with the help of step down transformer. Step down transformer step down the voltage from 220 volt ac to 9 volt ac. This ac is further converted into the dc voltage with the help of the full wave rectifier circuit


Fig 6: 7805 Voltage regulated IC.

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Fig 7: Voltage regulated Circuit

Output of the diode is pulsating dc . so to convert the pulsating dc into smooth dc we use electrolytic capacitor. Electrolytic capacitor convert the pulsating dc into smooth dc. This Dc is further regulated by the ic 7805 regulator. IC 7805 regulator provide a regulated 5 volt dc to the microcontroller circuit and lcd circuit.

Pin no 40 of the controller is connected to the positive supply. Pin no 20 is connected to the ground. Pin no 9 is connected to external resistor capacitor to provide a automatic reset option when power is on.
Reset Circuitry:

Pin no 9 of the controller is connected to the reset circuit. On the circuit we connect one resistor and capacitor circuit to provide a reset option when power is on
As soon as you give the power supply the 8051 doesn’t start. You need to restart for the microcontroller to start. Restarting the microcontroller is nothing but giving a Logic 1 to the reset pin at least for the 2 clock pulses. So it is good to go for a small circuit which can provide the 2 clock pulses as soon as the microcontroller is powered.

This is not a big circuit we are just using a capacitor to charge the microcontroller and again discharging via resistor.

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Fig 8: Crystal Oscillator


Crystals
Pin no 18 and 19 is connected to external crystal oscillator to provide a clock to the circuit.
Crystals provide the synchronization of the internal function and to the peripherals. Whenever ever we are using crystals we need to put the capacitor behind it to make it free from noises. It is good to go for a 33pf capacitor.

We can also resonators instead of costly crystal which are low cost and external capacitor can be avoided.
But the frequency of the resonators varies a lot. And it is strictly not advised when used for communications projects.
How is this time then calculated?
The speed with which a microcontroller executes instructions is determined by what is known as the crystal speed. A crystal is a component connected externally to the microcontroller. The crystal has different values, and some of the used values are 6MHZ, 10MHZ, and 11.059 MHz etc. Thus a 10MHZ crystal would pulse at the rate of 10,000,000 times per second.


Chapter 3:-

working of Transmitter.
In the transmitter circuit we use one RF module to send the data serially via radio frequency. Here in this project we use 433 MHz radio frequency module o send the data serially. Modulating frequency of the project is 433Mhtz and modulation type is ASK.

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Fig 9: Transmitter Circuit

Encoder and decoder

Whenever we want to send a data we use encoder ic to convert the parallel data into serial. This serial data is transmitting by the radio frequency module in air. For selecting a data base we use DIP switches. In actual practice we use internal data base. But in this project we use external data base to selection. Here we use four bit data with the help of DIP switches. Data is to be converted into serial with the help of the encoder IC. Here we use HT 12E encoder IC. HT12E encoder IC converts the parallel data into serial data.

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Fig 10: Encoder IC

Pin no 1to 8 is address pin. Pin no 9 is ground pin. Pin no 10,11,12,13 is data insertion pin. We provide a 0 bit on the entire address pin. But it is not necessary. We select the address line pins as our requirement. For providing a data to data pins either we provide a 4 bit data from microcontroller or any other digital circuit or we connect DIP switches Dip switches are connected with the pin no 10,11,12,13 . Pin no 14 is transmit control pin. We control the pin no 14 by connecting a pin no 14 to ground pin. When this pin is ground then only, data is to be transmit from the IC . Pin no 15 and 16 is the oscillator pin of the encoder IC . On this pin we connect a 1 M ohm resistor. Pin no 17 is data output pin. Data from this pin is connected to the input of transmitter module.
Data receive by the radio frequency receiver module. This receiver module is same as the frequency of transmitter module. Output from radio frequency module is further decoded by the decoder IC. Output of the decoder IC is further converted into parallel
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Fig 11: Decoder IC
RF-Transmitter Module
The TWS-434 and RWS-434 are extremely small, and are excellent for applications requiring short-range RF remote controls. The transmitter module is only 1/3 the size of a standard postage stamp, and can easily be placed inside a small plastic enclosure.
TWS-434: The transmitter output is up to 8mW at 433.92MHz with arange of approximately 400 foot (open area) outdoors. Indoors, the range is approximately 200 foot, and will go through most walls.....
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Fig 12: TWS-434A
The TWS-434 transmitter accepts both linear and digital inputs, can operate from 1.5 to 12 Volts-DC, and makes building a miniature hand-held RF transmitter very easy. The TWS-434 is approximately the size of a standard postage stamp.
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Fig 13: TWS-434 Pin [IMG]file:///C:/Users/SANGEE~1/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image027.gif[/IMG]
Fig 14: Sample Transmitter Application Circuit
Receiver
RWS-434: The receiver also operates at 433.92MHz, and has a sensitivity of 3uV. The RWS-434 receiver operates from 4.5 to 5.5 volts-DC, and has both linear and digital outputs.
Click on picture for larger image
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Fig 15 : RWS-434 Receiver
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Fig 16: RWS-434 Pin Diagram[IMG]file:///C:/Users/SANGEE~1/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image031.gif[/IMG]

Fig 17: Sample Receiver Application Circuit

The example above shows the receiver section using the HT-12D decoder IC for a 4-bit RF remote control system. The transmitter and receiver can also use the Holtek 8-bit HT-640/HT-648L remote control encoder/decoder combination for an 8-bit RF remote control system. Here are the schematics for an 8-bit RF remote control system: