1 Introduction ............................................................................................................ 1
1.1
1.2
Definitions and Classifications of Building Materials ....................... 1
Characteristics of Building Materials and Their Status in
Architecture ................................................................................................. 2
1.3
1.4
1.5
The Development of Building Materials .............................................. 3
The Introduction of Building Materialsí Technical Standards ......... 4
Characters, Purposes, Tasks and Learning Methods of Building
Materials Curriculum ................................................................................ 5
2 The Basic Properties of Building Materials ................................................. 7
2.1 Compositions and Structures of Materials and the Influence of
Their Constructions on the Properties ................................................... 7
2.2 Physical Properties of Materials ........................................................... 10
2.3 Mechanical Properties of Materials ..................................................... 21
2.4 Decorativeness of Materials ................................................................... 25
2.5 Durability of Materials ............................................................................ 26
Questions .............................................................................................................. 27
Exercises ............................................................................................................... 27
3 Air Hardening Binding Materials ................................................................. 29
3.1 Building Gypsum ..................................................................................... 29
3.2 Lime ............................................................................................................. 35
3.3 Magnesia .................................................................................................... 40
3.4 Soluble Glass ............................................................................................. 42
Questions .............................................................................................................. 45
4 Cement .................................................................................................................... 46
4.1 Portland Cement ....................................................................................... 47
4.2 Blended Portland Cement ....................................................................... 63
4.3 Other Varieties of Cement ...................................................................... 72
Questions .............................................................................................................. 78
Exercises ............................................................................................................... 80
5 Concrete ................................................................................................................. 81
5.1 Overview .................................................................................................... 81
5.2 Components of Ordinary Concrete ...................................................... 82
5.3 Thc Main Technical Properties of Ordinary Concrete ..................... 97
5.4 The Quality Control and the Strength Evaluation of Concrete .... 116
5.5 The Design of the Mix Proportion of Ordinary Concrete ............. 121
5.6 Other Varieties of Concrete .................................................................. 134
Questions ........................................................ : ................................................... 146
Exercises ............................................................................................................. 148
6 Building Mortar ................................................................................................ 150
The Composition of Mortar ................................................................. 150
The Main Technical Properties of Mortar ......................................... 153
6.3 Masonry Mortar ...................................................................................... 156
Other Kinds of Building Mortar ......................................................... 161
6 . I
6.2
6.4
Questions ............................................................................................................ 168
Exercises ............................................................................................................. 169
7 Wall and Roof Materials ................................................................................ 170
7.1 Wall Bricks .............................................................................................. 170
7.2 Wall Blocks .............................................................................................. 183
7.3 Wall Plates ................................................................................................ 188
7.4 Roof Materials ........................................................................................ 200
Questions ............................................................................................................ 204
Exercises ............................................................................................................. 204
8 Construction Steel ............................................................................................. 206
8.1 Classifications of Steel .......................................................................... 207
8.2 Characteristics of Steel .......................................................................... 209
8.3 Cold Working, Ageing and Welding .................................................. 217
8.4 Standards and Selection of Building Steel ........................................ 219
8.5 Fire Protection of Steel ......................................................................... 232
8.6 Corrosion and Prevention of Steel ...................................................... 233
Questions ............................................................................................................ 236
9 Wood ..................................................................................................................... 238
9.1 Classifications and Structures of Wood ............................................. 239
9.2 Physical and Mechanical Properties of Wood ................................. 242
9.3 Wood Preservation ................................................................................. 247
9.4 Applications of Wood in Architecture ............................................... 249
Questions ............................................................................................................ 252
10 Waterproof Materials .................................................................................... 253
10.1 Asphalt .................................................................................................... 253
10.2
10.3
Waterproof Asphalt Materials ........................................................... 265
New Waterproof Materials ................................................................. 267
Questions .............................................................................. : ............................. 287
11 Building Plastic ................................................................................................ 289
11.1
11.2
11.3 Applications of Building Plastic ....................................................... 298
Questions ............................................................................................................ 303
Heat-insulating Materials and Sound-absorbing Materials ............ 304
12.1
12.2 Sound-absorbing Materials ................................................................ 312
Components and Classifications of Plastic .................................... 289
Properties and Common Varieties of Plastic .................................. 292
12
Heat-insulating Materials ..... :... .......................................................... 304
Questions ............................................................................................................ 315
13 Finishing Materials ........................................................................................
13.1 Basic Requirements and Selecting Principles of Finishing
Materials ................................................................................................
Appendix Tests of Building Materials ........................................................... 344
Test One Tests of Materials' Basic Properties ........................................ 344
Test Two Lime Test ....................................................................................... 349
Test Three Cement Test ................................................................................ 355
Test Four Concrete Aggregate Test ........................................................... 370
Test Five Tests of the Main Technical Properties of Ordinary
Concrete ........................................................................................ 381
Test Six Building Mortar Test .................................................................... 39'1
Test Seven Fired Common Brick Test ...................................................... 397
Test Eight Steel Bar Test .............................................................................. 403
Test Nine Petroleum Asphalt Test ............................................................. 408
Test Ten Test of Elastic (Plastic) Modified Asphalt Waterproof
Coiled Materials ............................................................................ 414
References .................................................................................................................. 423
Index ............................................................................................................................. 424



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