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A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV), or plug-in hybrid is a hybrid vehicle which utilizes rechargable batteries, or another energy storage device, that can be restored to full charge by connecting a plug to an external electric power source. A PHEV shares the characteristics of both a conventional hybrid electric vehicle, having electric motor and an internal combustion engine (ICE); and of an all-electric vehicle, having a plug to connect to the electric grid. Most PHEVs on the road today are passenger cars, but there are also PHEV versions of commercial vehicles and vans, utility trucks, buses, trains, motorcycles,scooters,and military vehicles.
The cost for electricity to power plug-in hybrids for all electrical operations has been estimated at less than one quarter of the cost of gasoline in California. Compared to conventional vehicles, PHEVs reduce air pollution locally and dependence on petroleum. PHEVs may reduce greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global warming compared with conventional vehicles. PHEVs also eliminate the problem of range anxiety associated to all-electric vehicles, because the combustion engine works as a backup when the batteries are depleted, giving PHEVs driving range comparable to other vehicles with gasoline tanks. Plug-in hybrids use no fossil fuel during their all electric range and produce lower greenhouse gas emissions if their batteries are charged from renewable electricity. Other benefits include improved national energy security, fewer fill-ups at the filling station, the convenience of home recharging, opportunities to provide emergency backup power in the home, and vehicle to grid (V2G) applications.
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how do PHV batteries serve as back up power for homes?