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Introduction- Electric power systems usually involve sinusoidally varying (or nearly so) voltages and currents. Thatis,voltageand current arefunctionsof timethat arenearlypuresinewavesat fixedfrequency. In North America, most ships at sea and eastern Japan that frequency is 60 Hz. In most of the rest of the world it is 50 Hz. Normal power system operation is at this fixed frequency, which is why we study how systems operate in this mode. We will deal with transients later.
This note deals with alternating voltages and currents and with associated energy flows. The focus is on sinusoidal steady state conditions, in which virtually all quantities of interest may be represented by single, complex numbers.

Accordingly, this section opens with a review of complex numbers and with representation of voltage and current as complex amplitudes with complex exponential time dependence. The discussionproceeds,throughimpedance,todescribeapictorial representation of complex amplitudes, called phasors. Power is then defined and, in sinusoidal steady state, reduced to complex form. Finally, flow of power through impedances and a conservation law are discussed.
Secondarily,thissectionofthenotesdealswithtransmissionlinesthathaveinterestingbehavior, both in the time and frequency domails.

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