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Recent availability of small inexpensive low power GPS receivers and techniques for finding relative coordinates based on signal strengths, and the need for the design of power efficient and scalable networks, provided justification for applying position based routing methods in ad hoc networks. A number of such algorithms were developed in last few years, in addition to few basic methods proposed about fifteen years ago.
This article surveys known routing methods, and provides their taxonomy in terms of a number of characteristics: loop-free behavior, distributed operation (localized, global or zonal), path strategy (single path, multi-path or flooding based), metrics used (hop count, power or cost), memorization (memoryless or memorizing past traffic), guaranteed delivery, scalability, and robustness (strategies to handle the position deviation due to the dynamicity of the network).
In this paper we also briefly discuss relevant issues such as physical requirements, experimental design, location updates, congestion, scheduling node activity, topology construction, broadcasting and network.
Mobile ad hoc networks (often referred to as MANETs) consist of wireless hosts that communicate with each other in the absence of a fixed infrastructure. They are used in disaster relief, conference and battlefield environments, and received significant attention in recent years. A class of wireless ad hoc networks that is currently subject of intensive research is sensor network. Wireless networks of sensors are likely to be widely deployed in the near future because they greatly extend our ability to monitor and control the physical environment from remote locations and improve our accuracy of information obtained via collaboration among sensor nodes and online information processing at those nodes.
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