Abstract : Cooling effect at one end of a hollow tube with a pulsating pressure in the inside gas, was first observed by Gifford and Longsworth in early sixties.

This marks the inception of one of the most promising cryogenic refrigerators known as 'pulse tube refrigerator' (PTR). Cryogenics is the science of low temperature.

Cryogenics refers to the entire phenomenon occurring below -150C or 123K. Cryogenic engineering involves the design and development of systems and components which produce maintain, or utilize low temperatures.

Cryocoolers are devices which produce the required refrigeration power at low temperature.

The pulse tube refrigerator has been investigated for cooling various types of sensitive sensors such as infrared detectors for missiles, military aircrafts, tanks, night vision equipment and SQUIDs (super conducting quantum interference devices).

please find the following attachement"Design and Fabrication of pulse tube refrigeration system.pdf" here.......