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Introduction : Drainage is the process of interception and removal of water from over, and under the vicinity of the road surface.
Drainage can be surface (where water is conveyed on the road surface and drainage channels), or subsurface (water flows underneath the pavement structure).
Surface and subsurface drainage of roads critically affects their structural integrity, life and safety to users, and is thus important during highway design and construction.
Road designs therefore have to provide efficient means for removal of this water; hence the need for road drainage designs.
Drainage facilities are required to protect the road against damage from surface and sub surface water. Traffic safety is also important as poor drainage can result in dangerous conditions like hydroplaning.
Poor drainage can also compromise the structural integrity and life of a pavement. Drainage systems combine various natural and man made facilities e.g. ditches, pipes, culverts, curbs to convey this water safely.
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