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Multiplexing of Signals
It has been observed that most of the individual data-communicating devices typically require modest data rate. But, communication media usually have much higher bandwidth. As a consequence, two communicating stations do not utilize the full capacity of a data link. Moreover, when many nodes compete to access the network, some efficient techniques for utilizing the data link are very essential. When the bandwidth of a medium is greater than individual signals to be transmitted through the channel, a medium can be shared by more than one channel of signals. The process of making the most effective use of the available channel capacity is called Multiplexing. For efficiency, the channel capacity can be shared among a number of communicating stations just like a large water pipe can carry water to several separate houses at once. Most common use of multiplexing is in long-haul communication using coaxial cable, microwave and optical fibre.
Figure 2.7.1 depicts the functioning of multiplexing functions in general. The multiplexer is connected to the demultiplexer by a single data link. The multiplexer combines (multiplexes) data from these ‘n’ input lines and transmits them through the high capacity data link, which is being demultiplexed at the other end and is delivered to the appropriate output lines. Thus, Multiplexing can also be defined as a technique that allows simultaneous transmission of multiple signals across a single data link.
Multiplexing techniques can be categorized into the following three types:
Frequency-division multiplexing (FDM): It is most popular and is used extensively in radio and TV transmission. Here the frequency spectrum is divided into several logical channels, giving each user exclusive possession of a particular frequency band.
Time-division Multiplexing (TDM): It is also called synchronous TDM, which is commonly used for multiplexing digitized voice stream. The users take turns using the entire channel for short burst of time.
• Statistical TDM: This is also called asynchronous TDM, which simply improves on the efficiency of synchronous TDM.
In the following sections these techniques have been considered in detail.
Frequency-Division Multiplexing (FDM)
In frequency division multiplexing, the available bandwidth of a single physical medium is subdivided into several independent frequency channels. Independent message signals are translated into different frequency bands using modulation techniques, which are combined by a linear summing circuit in the multiplexer, to a composite signal. The resulting signal is then transmitted along the single channel by electromagnetic means as shown in Fig. 2.7.2. Basic approach is to divide the available bandwidth of a single physical medium into a number of smaller, independent frequency channels. Using modulation, independent message signals are translated into different frequency bands. All the modulated signals are combined in a linear summing circuit to form a composite signal for transmission. The carriers used to modulate the individual message signals are called sub-carriers, shown as f1, f2, …, fn in Fig. 2.7.3 (a).
Figure 2.7.2 Basic concept of FDM
At the receiving end the signal is applied to a bank of band-pass filters, which separates individual frequency channels. The band pass filter outputs are then demodulated and distributed to different output channels as shown in Fig. 2.7.3(b).
Figure 2.7.3 (a) FDM multiplexing process, (b) FDM demultiplexing process
Figure 2.7.4 Use of guard bands in FDM
If the channels are very close to one other, it leads to inter-channel cross talk. Channels must be separated by strips of unused bandwidth to prevent inter-channel cross talk. These unused channels between each successive channel are known as guard bands as shown in Fig. 2.7.4.
FDM are commonly used in radio broadcasts and TV networks. Since, the frequency band used for voice transmission in a telephone network is 4000 Hz, for a particular cable of 48 KHz bandwidth, in the 70 to 108 KHz range, twelve separate 4 KHz sub channels could be used for transmitting twelve different messages simultaneously. Each radio and TV station, in a certain broadcast area, is allotted a specific broadcast frequency, so that independent channels can be sent simultaneously in different broadcast area. For example, the AM radio uses 540 to 1600 KHz frequency bands while the FM radio uses 88 to 108 MHz frequency bands.
Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM)
In frequency division multiplexing, all signals operate at the same time with different frequencies, but in Time-division multiplexing all signals operate with same frequency at different times. This is a base band transmission system, where an electronic commutator sequentially samples all data source and combines them to form a composite base band signal, which travels through the media and is being demultiplexed into appropriate independent message signals by the corresponding commutator at the receiving end. The incoming data from each source are briefly buffered. Each buffer is typically one bit or one character in length. The buffers are scanned sequentially to form a composite data stream. The scan operation is sufficiently rapid so that each buffer is emptied before more data can arrive. Composite data rate must be at least equal to the sum of the individual data rates. The composite signal can be transmitted directly or through a modem. The multiplexing operation is shown in Fig. 2.7.7
Figure 2.7.7 Time division multiplexing operation
As shown in the Fig 2.7.7 the composite signal has some dead space between the successive sampled pulses, which is essential to prevent interchannel cross talks. Along with the sampled pulses, one synchronizing pulse is sent in each cycle. These data pulses along with the control information form a frame. Each of these frames contain a cycle of time slots and in each frame, one or more slots are dedicated to each data source. The maximum bandwidth (data rate) of a TDM system should be at least equal to the same data rate of the sources.
Synchronous TDM is called synchronous mainly because each time slot is preassigned to a fixed source. The time slots are transmitted irrespective of whether the sources have any data to send or not. Hence, for the sake of simplicity of implementation, channel capacity is wasted. Although fixed assignment is used TDM, devices can handle sources of different data rates. This is done by assigning fewer slots per cycle to the slower input devices than the faster devices. Both multiplexing and demultiplexing operation for synchronous TDM are shown in Fig. 2.7.8.
One drawback of the TDM approach, as discussed earlier, is that many of time slots in the frame are wasted. It is because, if a particular terminal has no data to transmit at particular instant of time, an empty time slot will be transmitted. An efficient alternative to this synchronous TDM is statistical TDM, also known as asynchronous TDM or Intelligent TDM. It dynamically allocates the time slots on demand to separate input channels, thus saving the channel capacity. As with Synchronous TDM, statistical multiplexers also have many I/O lines with a buffer associated to each of them. During the input, the multiplexer scans the input buffers, collecting data until the frame is filled and send the frame. At the receiving end, the demultiplexer receives the frame and distributes the data to the appropriate buffers. The difference between synchronous TDM and asynchronous TDM is illustrated with the help of Fig. 2.7.9. It may be noted that many slots remain unutilised in case synchronous TDM, but the slots are fully utilized leading to smaller time for transmission and better utilization of bandwidth of the medium. In case of statistical TDM, the data in each slot must have an address part, which identifies the source of data. Since data arrive from and are distributed to I/O lines unpredictably, address information is required to assure proper delivery as shown in Fig. 2.7.10.. This leads to more overhead per slot. Relative addressing can be used to reduce overhead.
Figure 2.7.10 Address overhead in asynchronous TDM
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thanks that was really helpfull