A fluid machine is a device which converts the energy storedby a fluid into mechanical energy or vice versa . The energy stored bya fluid mass appears in the form of potential, kinetic and intermolecularenergy. The mechanical energy, on the other hand, is usually transmitted by arotating shaft. Machines using liquid (mainly water, for almost all practicalpurposes) are termed as hydraulic machines. In this chapter we shall discuss,in general, the basic fluid mechanical principle governing the energy transferin a fluid machine and also a brief description of different kinds of hydraulicmachines along with their performances. Discussion on machines using air orother gases is beyond the scope of the chapter.
The fluid machines may be classified under differentcategories as follows:
Classification Based on Direction of EnergyConversion.
The device in which the kinetic, potential or intermolecularenergy held by the fluid is converted in the form of mechanical energy of arotating member is known as a turbine . The machines, on the otherhand, where the mechanical energy from moving parts is transferred to a fluidto increase its stored energy by increasing either its pressure or velocity areknown as pumps, compressors, fans or blowers .

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