1 Basic microprocessor systems 1
2 Binary – the way micros count 8
3 Hexadecimal – the way we communicate with micros 25
4 How micros calculate 38
5 An introduction to logic gates and their uses 49
6 Registers and memories 62
7 A microprocessor-based system 85
8 A typical 8-bit microprocessor 99
9 Programming – using machine code and assembly
language 121
10 High-level languages 132
11 The development of microprocessors and microcontrollers 151
12 The Pentium family 173
13 The PowerPC 184
14 The Athlon XP 194
15 Microcontrollers and how to use them 199
16 Using a PIC microcontroller for a real project 219
17 Interfacing 234
18 Test equipment and fault-finding 255
Appendix A: Special function register file 267
Appendix B: PIC 16CXXX instruction set 268
Further reading 271
Quiz time answers 273
Index 275



The first edition of this book started with the words: ‘A modern society
could no longer function without the microprocessor.’
This is certainly still true but it is even truer if we include the
microcontroller. While the microprocessor is at the heart of our
computers, with a great deal of publicity, the microcontroller is quietly
running the rest of our world. They share our homes, our vehicles and
our workplace, and sing to us from our greetings cards.