These are some of the research reached by some researchers in the strongest universities in Egypt, three threads very magnificence in the science of thermodynamics, which is well organized PDF compressed in a single link obtained from Professor Universities of Ain ​​Shams University

The science of is concerned with understanding the properties of inanimate matter in so far as they are determined by changes in temperature. The Second Law asserts that in irreversible processes there is a uni-directional increase in thermodynamic entropy, a measure of the degree of uncertainty in the thermal energy state of a randomly chosen particle in the aggregate. The science of evolution is concerned with understanding the properties of populations of living matter in so far as they are regulated by changes in generation time. Directionality theory, a mathematical model of the evolutionary process, establishes that in populations subject to bounded growth constraints, there is a uni-directional increase in evolutionary entropy, a measure of the degree of uncertainty in the age of the immediate ancestor of a randomly chosen newborn. This article reviews the mathematical basis of directionality theory and analyses the relation between directionality theory and statistical thermodynamics. We exploit an analytic relation between temperature, and generation time, to show that the directionality principle for evolutionary entropy is a non-equilibrium extension of the principle of a uni-directional increase of thermodynamic entropy. The analytic relation between these directionality principles is consistent with the hypothesis of the equivalence of fundamental laws as one moves up the hierarchy, from a molecular ensemble where the thermodynamic laws apply, to a population of replicating entities (molecules, cells, higher organisms), where evolutionary principles prevail.


Some contents:

1. Natural selection for costly nutrient recycling in simulated microbial metacommunities
2. Optimization of the visco-elastic parameters describing the heel-region of a prosthesis
3. The contribution of age structure to cell population responses to targeted therapeutics
4. Elman RNN based classification of proteins sequences on account of their mutual information
5. Exact analysis of intrinsic qualitative features of phosphorelays using mathematical models
6. Aerodynamic effects of corrugation and deformation in flapping wings of hovering hoverflies
7. Distribution function approach to the study of the kinetics of IgM antibody binding to FcγRIIIb (CD16b) receptors on neutrophils by flow cytometry
8. Spatio-temporal modelling of the intracellular signalling pathway: The roles of diffusion, active transport, and cell geometry
9. Physiological analysis on oscillatory behavior of glucose-insulin regulation by model with delays
10. Studies in irreversible thermodynamics IV. diagrammatic representation of steady state fluxes for unimolecular systems